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Alternate Directed Anthropogenic Shifts in Genotype Result in Different Ecological Outcomes in Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Fry
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre. Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada.;Miracle Springs Inc, 12443 Stave Lake Rd, Mission, BC V2V 0A6, Canada..
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, e0148687Article in journal (Refereed) Published
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Abstract [en]

Domesticated and growth hormone (GH) transgenic salmon provide an interesting model to compare effects of selected versus engineered phenotypic change on relative fitness in an ecological context. Phenotype in domestication is altered via polygenic selection of traits over multiple generations, whereas in transgenesis is altered by a single locus in one generation. These established and emerging technologies both result in elevated growth rates in culture, and are associated with similar secondary effects such as increased foraging, decreased predator avoidance, and similar endocrine and gene expression profiles. As such, there is concern regarding ecological consequences should fish that have been genetically altered escape to natural ecosystems. To determine if the type of genetic change influences fitness components associated with ecological success outside of the culture environments they were produced for, we examined growth and survival of domesticated, transgenic, and wild-type coho salmon fry under different environmental conditions. In simple conditions (i. e. culture) with unlimited food, transgenic fish had the greatest growth, while in naturalized stream tanks (limited natural food, with or without predators) domesticated fish had greatest growth and survival of the three fish groups. As such, the largest growth in culture conditions may not translate to the greatest ecological effects in natural conditions, and shifts in phenotype over multiple rather than one loci may result in greater success in a wider range of conditions. These differences may arise from very different historical opportunities of transgenic and domesticated strains to select for multiple growth pathways or counter-select against negative secondary changes arising from elevated capacity for growth, with domesticated fish potentially obtaining or retaining adaptive responses to multiple environmental conditions not yet acquired in recently generated transgenic strains.

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2016. Vol. 11, no 2, e0148687
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Zoology
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URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279566DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148687ISI: 000369554000158PubMedID: 26848575OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-279566DiVA: diva2:908426
Available from: 2016-03-02 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved

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Sundström, L. Fredrik

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