Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Ischaemic heart disease - risk assessment, diagnosis, and secondary preventive treatment in primary care: with special reference to the relevance of exercise ECG
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1640-0813
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Ischaemic heart disease is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to most general practitioners. We sought to identify diagnostic characteristics and prognoses of patients in primary care that received exercise electrocardiography (ECG). We compared the ECG test results with respect to probability of subsequent cardiologist referrals. We also aimed to identify determinants for pre-hospital delays and lack of statin treatment before a first-time myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods: Setting: Region of Jämtland Härjedalen, Sweden (adult population, approximately 99 000); study period 2010-2014. Patients and study designs: studies I and II: 865 patients referred to exercise ECG. Primary outcome: Incidence of cardiovascular events (I) and cardiologist referrals within six months after exercise ECG (II). Observed outcomes were compared to predictions from multivariable logistic models. Study III: 265 patients with first-time MI. Characteristics were analysed for determinants of pre-hospital delay ≥ 2 hours. Study IV: Survey of 931 patients with first-time MI. Analyses of characteristics associated with rates of statin treatment in patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Results: Study I: Exercise test results were associated with exertional chest pain, a pathologic ST-T segment on resting ECG, angina diagnosis according to the patient's opinion, and medication for dyslipidaemia. Cardiovascular events occurred in 52.7%, 18.3%, and 2.0% of patients with positive (ST-segment depression >1mm and chest pain indicative of angina), inconclusive (ST depression or chest pain), or negative tests, respectively. Study II: Positive or inconclusive exercise tests were associated with cardiologist referrals. Among patients with positive exercise tests, referral rates decreased with age, after adjusting for co-morbidity. Self-employed women were referred to cardiologic evaluations more often than other employed women. Study III: The first medical contact was a primary care facility for 52.3% of patients. The pre-hospital delay time was ≥ 2 h for 67.0% of patients in primary care and 44.7% of patients that called emergency medical services or were self-referred to hospital. Study IV: Among patients with prior CVD, 34.5% received current statin treatment before for the first MI. Statin treatment rates decreased with age, after adjusting for CVD and diabetes; women ≥70 years old were treated half as often as men of the same age.

Conclusions: Clinical characteristics can be used to identify patients at low risk of cardiac events. The prognosis in patients with a negative exercise ECG was benign for six months after the exercise ECG. Exercise tests are important for selecting patients that require cardiologic evaluations. Age, gender, and employment status interacted with rates of referrals for cardiac evaluation. The pre-hospital delay time was considerably prolonged, particularly when primary care was the first medical contact. Only one third of patients with a prior CVD received statin treatment. Pre-MI statin treatment decreased with age, particularly among women ≥70 years old. In making medical decisions, it is necessary to be aware of biases regarding age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Methodologies for case finding and follow-up need to be improved and implemented in clinical practice.

Keywords: Exercise ECG, Ischaemic heart disease, Myocardial infarction, Pre-hospital delay, Primary care, Prognosis, Referral, Statins, Secondary prevention

Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning på svenska: Bakgrund och syfte: Patienter med ischemisk hjärtsjukdom (IHD) utgör en diagnostisk och terapeutisk utmaning för läkare inom primärvården. Arbets-EKG är en vanlig metod vid utredning av patienter som söker till primärvården för besvär som kan vara förorsakade av IHD. Vi undersökte primärvårdspatienter remitterade till arbets-EKG, med avseende på de kliniska karakteristika (egenskaper och symtom) som kunde associeras med resultatet av arbets-EKG och med prognosen inom sex månader efter undersökningen. Vi jämförde arbets-EKG-svaren med avseende på efterföljande remittering för utredning vid hjärtklinik. Vi kartlade även faktorer av betydelse för tidsfördröjningen före sjukhusvård och för sekundärpreventiv behandling med kolesterolsänkande läkemedel (statiner), före insjuknande i hjärtinfarkt.

Metod: De studier som ingår i avhandlingsarbetet (studier I-IV) genomfördes i Region Jämtland och Härjedalen, befolkningsunderlag cirka 99 000 personer i åldrar från 20 år och äldre, under åren 2010-2014. Undersökta patienter och studiedesign: Studier I och II: Prospektiv studie av 865 patienter undersökta med arbets-EKG, klassificerade som: positivt arbets-EKG (dynamisk ST-sänkning >1mm under arbetsprov och bröstsmärta typisk för kärlkramp), inkonklusivt (ST-sänkning eller bröstsmärta) eller negativt arbets-EKG. Utfallsvariabler: hjärt-kärlhändelser (instabil kärlkrampssjukdom, hjärtinfarkt, öppen kranskärlsoperation, ballongvidgning av kranskärl och kardiovaskulära dödsfall) (I) och remittering för utredning vid hjärtklinik inom sex månader efter arbets-EKG (II). Observerade hjärt-kärlhändelser jämfördes med förväntat utfall, enligt multivariabla statistiska modeller. Studie III: Retrospektiv studie av 265 patienter med förstagångs hjärtinfarkt, analyserade med avseende på faktorer av betydelse för tid från symtomdebut och till sjukhusvård, med brytpunkten två timmar eller längre tid för vård på sjukhus. Studie IV: Tvärsnittsstudie av 931 patienter med förstagångs hjärtinfarkt. Patienter med tidigare hjärt-kärlsjukdom analyserades med avseende på statinbehandling före hjärtinfarkten.

Resultat: Studie I: Faktorer associerade med arbets-EKG-resultatet (positivt eller inkonklusivt svar mot negativt svar) var: ansträngningskorrelerad bröstsmärta före arbetsprovet, ST-T-segmentsförändringar på vilo-EKG, kärlkrampsdiagnos enligt patientens egen bedömning, samt medicinering för förhöjda kolesterolvärden i blodet. Hjärt-kärlhändelser inträffade i 52.7%, 18.3%, och 2.0% bland patienter med positivt, inkonklusivt respektive negativt arbets-EKG. Studie II: Resultatet från arbets-EKG styrde remitteringen av patienter till hjärtklinik, med högre sannolikhet för remiss efter positivt test. Bland patienter med positivt arbets-EKG remitterades färre patienter vid stigande ålder, justerat för tidigare känd hjärt-kärlsjukdom. Egenföretagande kvinnor blev oftare remitterade än andra kvinnor, justerat för ålder, bröstsmärtesymtom och arbets-EKG-svar. Studie III: I 52.3% av samtliga fall var primärvården (personligt besök eller via telefonrådgivning) den första vårdkontakten för patienter med förstagångs hjärtinfarkt. Tidsfördröjningen före sjukhusvård var 2 timmar eller mer bland 67.0% av alla patienter från primärvården och 44.7% bland de patienter som först ringde larmcentralen (112) eller sökte direkt till sjukhusets akutmottagning. Studie IV: Patienter med tidigare konstaterad hjärt-kärlsjukdom hade en pågående statinbehandling i 34.5% av fallen, före insjuknandet i förstagångs hjärtinfarkt. Andelen patienter med pågående statinbehandling avtog med stigande ålder, justerat för diabetes och tidigare hjärt-kärlsjukdom. Kvinnor från 70 år och äldre erhöll statinbehandling hälften så ofta som jämförbara män.

Slutsats: Patienter med låg risk för hjärt-kärlhändelser kan identifieras före remittering till arbets-EKG, med hjälp av kliniska karakteristika. Patienter med negativt svar på arbets-EKG har en god prognos, med få hjärt-kärlhändelser inom sex månader efter arbetsprovet. Urvalet av patienter som remitteras för fortsatt hjärtutredning styrs av resultatet från arbets-EKG, men interaktioner mellan ålder, kön och anställningsförhållanden påverkar sannolikheten för remittering. Tiden från symtomdebut och till sjukhusvård var avsevärt fördröjd, särskilt för de patienter som primärt kontaktade primärvården. Endast en tredjedel av alla patienter med tidigare konstaterad hjärt-kärlsjukdom hade en pågående statinbehandling vid hjärtinfarktinsjuknandet. Andelen patienter med pågående statinbehandling avtog med högre ålder, särskilt bland kvinnor från 70 års ålder och äldre. En ökad medvetenhet om hur ålder, kön och social ställning påverkar den medicinska beslutsprocessen är angelägen. Metoder för bättre identifiering och uppföljning av riskpersoner behöver utvecklas och införas i den medicinska verksamheten.

Nyckelord och förklaringar: Arbets-EKG (kliniskt arbetsprov på ergometercykel med samtidig EKG-registrering), positivt arbets-EKG (talar för kärlkrampssjukdom), negativt arbets-EKG (talar för frånvaro av sjukdom). EKG (elektrokardiografi), hjärtinfarkt, ischemisk hjärtsjukdom (sjukdomstillstånd med otillräcklig blodtillförsel till hjärtat), sekundärprevention (förhindra återinsjuknande i tidigare genomliden sjukdom).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2016. , 94 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1787
Keyword [en]
Exercise ECG, Ischaemic heart disease, Myocardial infarction, Prehospital delay, Primary care, Prognosis, Referral, Statin, Secondary prevention
Keyword [sv]
Arbets-EKG, hjärtinfarkt, ischemisk hjärtsjukdom, sekundärprevention
National Category
Family Medicine
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117149ISBN: 978-91-7601-431-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-117149DiVA: diva2:905540
Public defence
2016-03-18, Sal 135, byggnad 9A, Enheten för allmänmedicin, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, 901 85 Umeå, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-02-26 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Treatment with statins prior to first time myocardial infarction, with special reference to patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease: a population-based survey
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment with statins prior to first time myocardial infarction, with special reference to patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease: a population-based survey
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
cardiovascular disease, statins, myocardial infarction, secondary prevention
National Category
Family Medicine
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117135 (URN)
Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2016-02-25
2. Pre-hospital delay in patients with first time myocardial infarction: an observational study in a northern Swedish population
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre-hospital delay in patients with first time myocardial infarction: an observational study in a northern Swedish population
2016 (English)In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 16, no 1, 93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In myocardial infarction (MI), pre-hospital delay is associated with increased mortality and decreased possibility of revascularisation. We assessed pre-hospital delay in patients with first time MI in a northern Swedish population and identified determinants of a pre-hospital delay ≥2 h.

Methods: A total of 89 women (mean age 72.6 years) and 176 men (mean age 65.8 years) from a secondary prevention study were enrolled in an observational study after first time MI between November 2009 and March 2012. Total pre-hospital delay was defined as the time from the onset of symptoms suggestive of MI to admission to the hospital. Decision time was defined as the time from the onset of symptoms until the call to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). The time of symptom onset was assessed during the episode of care, and the time of call to EMS and admission to the hospital was based on recorded data. The first medical contact was determined from a mailed questionnaire. Determinants associated with pre-hospital delay ≥ 2 h were identified by multivariable logistic regression.

Results: The median total pre-hospital delay was 5.1 h (IQR 18.1), decision time 3.1 h (IQR 10.4), and transport time 1.2 h (IQR 1.0). The first medical contact was to primary care in 52.3 % of cases (22.3 % as a visit to a general practitioner and 30 % by telephone counselling), 37.3 % called the EMS, and 10.4 % self-referred to the hospital. Determinants of a pre-hospital delay ≥ 2 h were a visit to a general practitioner (OR 10.77, 95 % CI 2.39–48.59), call to primary care telephone counselling (OR 3.82, 95 % CI 1.68–8.68), chest pain as the predominant presenting symptom (OR 0.24, 95 % CI 0.08–0.77), and distance from the hospital (OR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.02–1.04). Among patients with primary care as the first medical contact, 67.0 % had a decision time ≥ 2 h, compared to 44.7 % of patients who called EMS or self-referred (p = 0.002).

Conclusions: Pre-hospital delay in patients with first time MI is prolonged considerably, particularly when primary care is the first medical contact. Actions to shorten decision time and increase the use of EMS are still necessary.

Keyword
Myocardial infarction, observational study, pre-hospital delay, primary care
National Category
Family Medicine
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117132 (URN)10.1186/s12872-016-0271-x (DOI)000376724500001 ()27176816 (PubMedID)
Note

Originally published in manuscript form in thesis.

Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
3. Use of exercise tests in primary care: importance for referral decisions and possible bias in the decision process; a prospective observational study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of exercise tests in primary care: importance for referral decisions and possible bias in the decision process; a prospective observational study
2014 (English)In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 15, 182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The utility of clinical exercise tests depends on their support of treatment decisions. We sought to assess the utility of exercise tests for the selection of primary-care patients for referral to cardiologic care, and to determine whether referral decisions were biased by gender or socioeconomic status. We also evaluated referral rates and cardiovascular events in patients with positive exercise tests. 

Methods: We designed a prospective observational study of 438 men and 427 women from 28 Swedish primary-care clinics who were examined with exercise testing for suspected coronary disease. All participants were followed-up with respect to cardiologist referrals and cardiovascular events (hospitalisation for unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death) within six months and revascularisation within 250 days. Variables associated with referral were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Socioeconomic status was determined by educational level and employment. 

Results: Positive/inconclusive exercise tests and exertional chest pain predicted referral in men and women. Of 865 participants, patients with positive, inconclusive, or negative exercise tests were referred to cardiologists in 67.3%, 26.1%, and 3.5% of cases, respectively. Overall, there was no significant difference in referral rates related to gender or socioeconomic level. Self-employed women were referred more frequently compared to other women (odds ratio (OR) 3.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-10.99). Among non-manual employees, women were referred to cardiologic examination less frequently than men (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-1.00; p = 0.049; ORs adjusted for age, exertional chest pain, and exercise test result). In patients with positive exercise tests, the referral rate decreased continuously with age (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.23-0.97; adjusted for cardiovascular co-morbidity). Cardiovascular events occurred in 22.2% (4/18) of non-referred patients with positive exercise tests; 56% (10/18) of these patients were not considered for cardiologic care, with continuity problems in primary care as one possible contributing cause. 

Conclusions: Exercise tests are important for selecting patients for referral to cardiologic care. Interactions related to gender and socioeconomic status affected referral rates. In patients with positive exercise tests, referral rates decreased with age. An increased awareness of possible bias regarding age, gender, and socioeconomic status, which may influence medical decisions, is therefore necessary.

Keyword
Coronary disease, Exercise test, Primary care, Referral
National Category
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-99023 (URN)10.1186/s12875-014-0182-9 (DOI)000348108800001 ()25433410 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-02-02 Created: 2015-02-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Diagnostic characteristics and prognoses of primary-care patients referred for clinical exercise testing: a prospective observational study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diagnostic characteristics and prognoses of primary-care patients referred for clinical exercise testing: a prospective observational study
2014 (English)In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 15, 71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Evaluation of angina symptoms in primary care often includes clinical exercise testing. We sought to identify clinical characteristics that predicted the outcome of exercise testing and to describe the occurrence of cardiovascular events during follow-up. Methods: This study followed patients referred to exercise testing for suspected coronary disease by general practitioners in the County of Jamtland, Sweden (enrolment, 25 months from February 2010). Patient characteristics were registered by pre-test questionnaire. Exercise tests were performed with a bicycle ergometer, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, and validated scales for scoring angina symptoms. Exercise tests were classified as positive (ST-segment depression > 1 mm and chest pain indicative of angina), non-conclusive (ST depression or chest pain), or negative. Odds ratios (ORs) for exercise-test outcome were calculated with a bivariate logistic model adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and previous cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular events (unstable angina, myocardial infarctions, decisions on revascularization, cardiovascular death, and recurrent angina in primary care) were recorded within six months. A probability cut-off of 10% was used to detect cardiovascular events in relation to the predicted test outcome. Results: We enrolled 865 patients (mean age 63.5 years, 50.6% men); 6.4% of patients had a positive test, 75.5% were negative, 16.4% were non-conclusive, and 1.7% were not assessable. Positive or non-conclusive test results were predicted by exertional chest pain (OR 2.46, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.69-3.59), a pathologic ST-T segment on resting electrocardiogram (OR 2.29, 95% Cl 1.44-3.63), angina according to the patient (OR 1.70, 95% Cl 1.13-2.55), and medication for dyslipidaemia (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.02-2.23). During follow-up, cardiovascular events occurred in 8% of all patients and 4% were referred to revascularization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 52.7%, 18.3%, and 2% of patients with positive, non-conclusive, or negative tests, respectively. The model predicted 67/69 patients with a cardiovascular event. Conclusions: Clinical characteristics can be used to predict exercise test outcome. Primary care patients with a negative exercise test have a very low risk of cardiovascular events, within six months. A predictive model based on clinical characteristics can be used to refine the identification of low-risk patients.

Keyword
angina pectoris, chest pain, electrocardiography, exercise test, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, predictive value of tests, primary health care, prognosis, self assessment
National Category
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-89486 (URN)10.1186/1471-2296-15-71 (DOI)000335350700001 ()24742057 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-06-19 Created: 2014-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Spikblad(234 kB)74 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 234 kBChecksum SHA-512
16ccac32516c4e1b6b189666409fc93ac65a01f4cec293eeb46e4a232e92ddea5be83f43ef8d75171680189953db5e9a96a3ded99cf67b42c87dc11fef4a32e5
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Fulltext(1111 kB)299 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 1111 kBChecksum SHA-512
1beee054de005ec59604c513c87207adb6506408f13382aa784828b9c90571c28fb5e6e447503e3ff9cff937163b817674f0d1c7af4900865c2e8bd09f971973
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Nilsson, Gunnar
By organisation
Family Medicine
Family Medicine

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 373 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 1067 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf