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Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems)
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany ; University of Konstanz, Germany.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems)
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany ; University of Konstanz, Germany.
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2016 (English)In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, no 2, 1-11 p., UNSP 150633Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The last decade has seen a surge in research on avian influenza A viruses (IAVs), in part fuelled by the emergence, spread and potential zoonotic importance of highly pathogenic virus subtypes. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread dabbling duck in the world, and one of the most important natural hosts for studying IAV transmission dynamics. In order to predict the likelihood of IAV transmission between individual ducks and to other hosts, as well as between geographical regions, it is important to understand how IAV infection affects the host. In this study, we analysed the movements of 40 mallards equipped with GPS transmitters and three-dimensional accelerometers, of which 20 were naturally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), at a major stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Movements differed substantially between day and night, as well as between mallards returning to the capture site and those feeding in natural habitats. However, movement patterns did not differ between LPAIV infected and uninfected birds. Hence, LPAIV infection probably does not affect mallard movements during stopover, with high possibility of virus spread along the migration route as a consequence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 3, no 2, 1-11 p., UNSP 150633
National Category
Infectious Medicine Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-49798DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150633ISI: 000377969000024Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84958073847OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-49798DiVA: diva2:903766
Available from: 2016-02-16 Created: 2016-02-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Stopover Ecology of Mallards: Where, when and how to do what?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stopover Ecology of Mallards: Where, when and how to do what?
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread duck in the northern hemisphere and a model species in ecology and harvest management. Migration is a crucial life stage for many birds and understanding the drivers of migration has important implications for conservation biology and assessment of animal population responses to global changes. Furthermore, mallard migration is a fundamental determinant of the epidemiology of many diseases of major relevance for both animal and human health. For example, it is the reservoir host for influenza A viruses (IAV), a widespread zoonosis causing mortality and economic damage. Improved knowledge of mallard behaviour during migration and the impacts of infection in mallards is needed to determine the role of wild birds in global IAV dynamics.

This thesis focuses on mallard stopover ecology, an explicitly important part of the annual life cycle that is not well understood. The study area was southern Öland, SE Sweden, where mallard stopover behaviour was scrutinized by a combination of telemetry and ringing data analyses. Specifically, habitat preferences, movements, and emigration decisions were studied in-depth. Potential effects of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAIV) infection on movement parameters were also investigated. Radio-tracking revealed that stopover mallards adhered to a strict diel pattern, in which they spent the days resting along the coast, visited crop fields at dawn and dusk, and foraged on inland water bodies during the darkest night hours. Notably, the importance of residual maize, as well as small ephemeral wetlands on the unique alvar steppe habitat that predominates on Öland, was previously unknown. LPAIV infection status did not affect movement behaviour, highlighting the possible risk of spread of IAV from wild mallards to poultry along the migratory flyway. Through capture-mark-recapture modelling, it was confirmed that weather, particularly wind direction, was the most important determinant of departure from the stopover site. In contrast, the body condition of departing mallards was less crucial. Taken together, the research presented in this thesis contributes to improved knowledge about mallard stopover ecology and its role in LPAIV disease dynamics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2016
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 242/2016
Keyword
Age characters, body condition, departure decision, effects of influenza A virus, habitat selection, mallard, movement, Ottenby Bird Observatory, stopover ecology, weather, wild birds
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-49801 (URN)978-91-88357-00-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-03-11, Fullriggaren, Landgången 4, Kalmar, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-02-18 Created: 2016-02-16 Last updated: 2017-04-19Bibliographically approved

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