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Building muscle: a translation of training adaptation
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8471-9455
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Bygga muskler : en översättning av träningsanpassning (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Training is preparation for what is expected to come through utilization of the plastic and resistive features of nature, known as adaptation. As such, training in humans may have a number of desired goals. These are typically related to sports performance or education. Whatever the goal, a plan needs to be made for reaching it. One needs to identify or select which activities and environments constitute the event or events to which adaptation is sought. Adaptations occurs by imposing something similar to said environment and practicing the selected activities in preparation for the events that can ultimately lead to goal fulfillment.

One quite common goal of physical training is to achieve a more lean and muscular physique, be it for reasons of performance or esthetics. A leaner and more muscular physique can have many advantages for health and quality of life. If we are to prepare the body’s physical capabilities and properties, they should be utilized in the preparation. By proper design and execution of a program for physical preparation, we set out on the path to achieve the goal.

A factor that is often highlighted as an important key to building muscle in the human body is the steroid hormone testosterone. According to the hormone hypothesis, increases in muscle mass are achieved through transient elevations in anabolic hormones, such as testosterone and IGF1, induced by physical training. To achieve hypertrophy of the muscles through physical training, one must ensure sure that the muscles get the correct signal, the growth signal, as a result of the training.

The work presented in this thesis is, in part, an examination of the hormone hypothesis, with both empirical and theoretical elements. The empirical foundations are results of an experiment in which a group of young men were subjected to a program of physical training, designed for all intents and purposes in accordance with contemporary knowledge, to result in muscular hypertrophy in the subjects. The goal was achieved, with an average 4.6% increase in lean body mass in the subjects after the training program. However, there was no evidence that anabolic hormones were elevated at any time during the measurement period.

The major part of this thesis details a model for explaining the collected observations. It is not intended to merely provide a guide for achieving a leaner more muscular physique but rather is aimed at formulating the problem of inducing the desired adaptations and difficulties involved in approaching the problem. For reasons discussed in this thesis, I do not claim that this is the full and final word on the matter. However, it goes some way toward explaining why, and perhaps how, desired goals should be formulated so that the muscles may understand them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2016. , 95 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1738
Keyword [en]
Training, adaptation, muscle, human, hypertrophy, testosterone
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114688ISBN: 978-91-7601-398-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-114688DiVA: diva2:897587
Public defence
2016-02-19, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-29 Created: 2016-01-26 Last updated: 2016-02-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Gene expression and fiber type variations in repeated vastus lateralis biopsies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene expression and fiber type variations in repeated vastus lateralis biopsies
2015 (English)In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 52, no 2, 812-817 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Muscle sample collection can introduce variation in any measured variable due to inter- and intramuscle variation. We investigated the variation in gene expression and fiber type composition after repeated biopsy sampling from the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Six subjects donated 3 tissue samples each. One hour after baseline sampling from 1 vastus lateralis muscle, samples from both vastus lateralis muscles were obtained. Results: The fiber type composition differed between biopsies taken from the same leg. There were no within-subject differences in gene expression between the 3 biopsies. Multivariate analysis supports a model in which gene expression differs significantly between individuals but is not affected by repeated muscle biopsy sampling from the same subject. Conclusion: One vastus lateralis muscle sample per subject is sufficient to establish a reliable baseline for comparing gene expression representing selected pathways over time within the same individual.

Keyword
fiber type, gene expression, human, muscle, repeated sampling
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103248 (URN)10.1002/mus.24616 (DOI)000362549500017 ()25703336 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
2. Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and whole-body oxidative capacity in response to resistance training
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and whole-body oxidative capacity in response to resistance training
Show others...
2014 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 7, 1463-1471 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of resistance training on mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle are not fully characterized, and even less is known about alterations in adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate adaptations in oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue after 8 weeks of heavy resistance training in apparently healthy young men. Expression of genes linked to oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was assessed before and after the training program. Body composition, peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), fat oxidation, activity of mitochondrial enzyme in muscle, and serum adiponectin levels were also determined before and after resistance training. In muscle, the expression of the genes AdipoR1 and COX4 increased after resistance training (9 and 13 %, respectively), whereas the expression levels of the genes PGC-1 alpha, SIRT1, TFAM, CPT1b, and FNDC5 did not change. In adipose tissue, the expression of the genes SIRT1 and CPT1b decreased after training (20 and 23 %, respectively). There was an increase in lean mass (from 59.7 +/- A 6.1 to 61.9 +/- A 6.2 kg), VO2 peak (from 49.7 +/- A 5.5 to 56.3 +/- A 5.0 ml/kg/min), and fat oxidation (from 6.8 +/- A 2.1 to 9.1 +/- A 2.7 mg/kg fat-free mass/min) after training, whereas serum adiponectin levels decreased significantly and enzyme activity of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase did not change. Despite significant increases in VO2 peak, fat oxidation, and lean mass following resistance training, the total effect on gene expression and enzyme activity linked to oxidative metabolism was moderate.

Keyword
Resistance training, Oxidative capacity, Skeletal muscle, Adipose tissue, Gene expression, Enzyme activity
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-91051 (URN)10.1007/s00421-014-2879-9 (DOI)000337052300013 ()
Available from: 2014-07-11 Created: 2014-07-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Effects of protein ingestion on the hormonal response to resistance exercise and increases in lean body mass after eight weeks of training
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of protein ingestion on the hormonal response to resistance exercise and increases in lean body mass after eight weeks of training
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103249 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2016-01-26Bibliographically approved

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