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Time strain among employed and self employed women and men in Sweden
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
CHESS, Stockholm University.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5935-5688
2015 (English)In: Society, Health & Vulnerability, ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 6, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dual-earner families are common in Sweden, and most women are involved in the labour market. It has been shown that employees and self-employed individuals perceive their working conditions differently: self-employed individuals are more likely to experience an imbalance between work and family, higher job demands, and the feeling that they must be ‘‘always on.’’ Thus, there may also be a difference between employees and self-employed individuals in terms of perceived time strain. Previous studies have identified differences in time-use patterns among men and women who are employed and self-employed. This study uses time-use data to examine potential gender differences among men and women who are self-employed and those who are employees with regard to time strain effects related to time spent on paid and unpaid work in Sweden. The results show that self-employed individuals, particularly self-employed women, report the highest levels of time strain. For self-employed women, an increase in the time spent on paid work reduces perceived time strain levels, whereas the opposite is true for employees and self-employed men. It is primarily individual and family factors, and not time use, that are related to time strain. The results provide evidence that gender differences in time strain are greater among self-employed individuals than among employees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CoAction Publishing, 2015. Vol. 6, 1-16 p.
Keyword [en]
Employees; gender; self-employed; Sweden; time strain
National Category
Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26727DOI: 10.3402/shv.v6.29183OAI: diva2:886280
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-0615AFA Insurance, 130190EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7/2007-2013
Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-22 Last updated: 2016-01-04Bibliographically approved

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Hagqvist, EmmaVinberg, Stig
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