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Vikten är av vikt: Barn och ungdomars erfarenheter av att leva med övervikt eller fetma - En litteraturstudie
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
2015 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning 

Bakgrund 

Övervikt och fetma definieras som ”onormal eller överdriven ansamling av fett som utgör en risk för hälsa”. Förekomsten av fetma har globalt fördubblats sedan 1980-talet. Enligt barnhälsovården var 2011 8,0 - 13,5 % av Sveriges fyraåringar överviktiga och 1,8 - 2,7 % hade fetma. 

Syfte 

Att belysa barn och ungdomars (8-19 år) erfarenheter av att leva med övervikt eller fetma samt granska hur den metodologiska aspekten datainsamlingsmetod beskrivs. 

Metod 

Litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design. Sammanställning av tolv artiklar med kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats samt mixed metod. Systematisk databassökning i PubMed. 

Resultat 

Barn och ungdomar har svårt att identifiera sig som överviktigt/feta. Kroppsuppfattning är individuellt och skiljer sig mellan könen, flickor identifierar sig i större utsträckning som överviktiga/feta. 

Barn och ungdomar med övervikt/fetma upplever i större utsträckning utsatthet/mobbning än normalviktiga i t.ex. skola, vid fysisk aktivitet eller sociala medier där vänner och/eller familjemedlemmar ger viktrelaterade kommentarer. Samband kan ses mellan utsatthet/mobbning under ungdomsåren och senare i livet. 

Reducerad livskvalitet är vanligt förekommande i form av försämrat självförtroende, depression samt påverkad fysisk aktivitet. 

Generellt finns en god förståelse gällande sund livsstil, detta uppfattas svårt att leva efter och familjen har en viktig stöttande roll. Trygghet och tillhörighet återfinns även hos andra överviktiga/feta kamrater. 

Slutsats 

Barn och ungdomar med övervikt/fetma mår sämre än normalviktiga. Detta visar sig i sämre kroppsuppfattning, reducerad livskvalitet och utsatthet/mobbning. Därför är av stor vikt att i tidigt skede uppmärksamma barn och ungdomar med viktproblematik, detta för att i erbjuda adekvata vårdinsatser.

Abstract [en]

Abstract 

Background 

Overweight and obesity is defined as abnormal or an overexaggerated amount of fat that creates a risk for ones health. The presence of obesity has doubled globally since the 1980's. According to the Child Health Care 2011 were 8,0 - 13,5 % of Swedens four year olds considered to be overweight, and 1,8 - 2,7 % are considered obese. 

Purpose 

The purpose of the literaturestudy is to describe the experiences of children and adolescents (8-19 years) living with overweight/obesity and examine how the methodological aspect of data collection method is described. 

Method 

The methods consisted of: a literature study with descriptive design, a systemativ computer based search with PubMed and a summary of 12 qualitative and quantitative studys and mixed metod. 

Results Children and adolescents have a hard time identifying themselves as overweight/obese. Body image is individual and there is a clear distinction between the sexes, where girls tend to identify themselves more as overweight/obese. Children and adolescents tend to experience a greater degree of bullying and vulnerability then would children of normal weight, in school, social media and when exerting themselves physically from friends and family members who make weight related comments. Correlations can be seen between vulnerability and bullying in both the youth ages and into adulthood. Reduced quality of life is often experienced through weakened sense of self-confidence, and depression, as well as poorer performance in physical activity. Children and adolescents in general have a good understanding of what it means to have a healthy lifestyle, but find it difficult to follow. Family has a very important role in supporting this lifestyle, security and belonging are also found in other overweight/obese peers. Conclusion Children and adolescents who are overweight/obese feel worse than normal weight peers. This shows itself through poorer body awareness, reduced quality of life and vulnerability/bullying. Therefore it is of great importance to the early attention to children and young people with weight problems, in order to offer appropriate health care interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 32 p.
Keyword [en]
adolescent, children, experiences, obesity, overweight
Keyword [sv]
barn, erfarenheter, fetma, ungdomar, övervikt
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20819OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-20819DiVA: diva2:881153
Subject / course
Nursing
Educational program
Nursing
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved

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