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Effects of microstructure on deformation behaviour of AZ91D cast alloy
Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting. (Materials and Manufacturing)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9886-9710
Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6445-6005
Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0101-0062
2014 (English)In: TMS 2014 Annual Meeting Supplemental Proceedings TMS, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, San Diego, February 16-20, 2014, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, 565-572 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The deformation behavior of AZ91D cast magnesium alloy was investigated using uniaxial tensile tests from room temperature up to 190°C and strain rates from 0.0001 up to 0.1 1/s. In present work gradient solidification in a Bridgeman furnace was employed to study the effect of initial microstructure on the tensile mechanical response of the AZ91D alloy. The furnace drawing rate was varied from minimum 0.3 to maximum 6 mm/s, which yielded a variation of SDAS from 4.2 up to 25 as well as a variation of the fraction of the γ -phase (Mg17Al12),. The effects of microstructural parameters such as SDAS and γ -phase morphology on the yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardening were investigated

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2014. 565-572 p.
Series
TMS Annual Meeting
Keyword [en]
AZ91D, Microstructure, Mechanical properties, Temperature, Strain rate, Phase fraction
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-28468ISI: 000354941300068Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84899708224ISBN: 978-1-118-88972-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-28468DiVA: diva2:876230
Conference
TMS 2014
Available from: 2015-12-02 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. As-cast AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Properties- Effect of Microstructure and Temperature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>As-cast AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Properties- Effect of Microstructure and Temperature
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Magnesium and magnesium alloys are used in a wide variety of structural applications including automotive, aerospace, hand tools and electronic industries thanks to their light weight, high specific strength, adequate corrosion resistance and good castability. Al and Zn are the primary alloying elements in commercial Mg alloys and commonly used in automotive industries. AZ91 is one of the most popular Mg alloys containing 9% Al and 1% Zn. Hence, lots of research have been done during last decades on AZ91D. However, the existing data concerning mechanical properties and microstructural features showed large scatter and is even contradictory. This work focused on the correlation between the microstructure and the mechanical properties of as-cast AZ91 alloy. An exhaustive characterization of the grain size, secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) distribution, and fraction of Mg17Al12 using optical and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was performed. These microstructural parameters were correlated to offset yield point (Rp0.2), fracture strength and elongation to fracture. It was understood that the intermetallic phase, Mg17Al12, plays an important role in determining the mechanical and physical properties of the alloy at temperature range from room temperature up to 190oC. It was realized that by increasing the Mg17Al12 content above 11% a network of intermetallic may form. During deformation this rigid network should break before any plastic deformation happen. Hence, increase in Mg17Al12 content resulted in an increase in offset yield point. The presence of this network was supported by study of thermal expansion behaviour of the alloy containing different amount of Mg17Al12. A physically-based model was adapted and validated in order to predict the flow stress behaviour of as-cast AZ91D at room temperature up to 190ºC for various microstructures. The model was based on dislocation glide and climb in a single-phase (matrix) material containing reinforcing particles. The temperature dependant variables of the model were quite well correlated to the underlying physics of the material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Engineering, 2015
Series
JTH Dissertation Series, 10
Keyword
Magnesium alloys, As-cast, AZ91D, Mechanical properties, Microstructural scale effect, Physical modelling
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-28467 (URN)978-91-87289-11-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-11-06, Room E1405, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2016-01-14Bibliographically approved
2. As-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy properties: Effects of microstructure and temperature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>As-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy properties: Effects of microstructure and temperature
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today, there is an essential need for lightweight, energy-efficient, environmentally benign engineering systems, and this is the driving force behind the development of a wide range of structural and functional materials for energy generation, energy storage, propulsion, and transportation. These challenges have motivated the use of magnesium alloys for lightweight structural systems. Magnesium has a density of 1.74 g/cm3, which is almost 30% less than that of aluminium, one quarter of steel, and almost identicalto polymers. The ease of recycling magnesium alloys as compared to polymers makes them environmentally attractive, but their poor mechanical performance is the primary reason for the limited adoption of these alloys for structural applications.

The Mg-Al-Zn alloy AZ91D exhibits an excellent combination of strength, die-castability, and corrosion resistance. However, its mechanical performance with regard to creep strength, for example, at evaluated temperatures is poor. Moreover, very little is known about the correlation between its mechanical properties and microstructural features. This thesis aims to provide new knowledge regarding the role played by microstructure in the mechanical performance of the magnesium alloy. The properties/performance of the material in relation to process parameters became of great interest during the investigation.

An exhaustive characterisation of the grain size, secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) distribution, and fraction of Mg17Al12 was performed using optical and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These microstructural parameters were correlated to the offset yield point (Rp0.2), fracture strength, and elongation to failure of the material. It was proposed that the intermetallic phase, Mg17Al12, plays an important role in determining the mechanical and physical properties of the alloy in a temperature range of room temperature to 190°C by forming a rigid network of intermetallic. The presence of this network was confirmed by studying the thermal expansion behaviour of samples of the alloy containing different amounts of Mg17Al12.

A physically based constitutive model with a wide validity range was successfully adapted to describe the flow stress behaviour of AZ91D with various microstructures. The temperature-dependent variables of the model correlated quite well with the underlying physics of the material. The model was validated through comparison with dislocation densities obtained using EBSD.

The influence of high-pressure die-cast parameters on the distortion and residual stress of the cast components was studied, as were distortion and residual stress in components after shot peening and painting. Interestingly, it was found that intensification pressure has a major effect on distortion and residual stresses, and that the temperature of the fixed half of the die had a slight influence on the component's distortion and residual stress.

Abstract [sv]

Numera finns det ett väsentligt behov av lätta, energieffektiva och miljövänliga tekniksystem. Detta behov är drivkraften för utveckling av ett brett utbud av material för energigenerering, energilagring, framdrivning och transport. Dessa utmaningar motiverade användningen av magnesiumlegeringar för lättviktskonstruktioner. Magnesium har en densitet på 1,74 g/cm3, vilket är ca 30% lägre än för aluminium, en fjärdedel av densiteten för stål och nästan i nivå med många polymerer. Då magnesiumlegeringar dessutom är lätta att återvinna, jämfört med polymerer, gör det dem miljömässigt attraktiva. Låga mekaniska egenskaper är den främsta orsaken till begränsad användning av dessa legeringar för lastbärande tillämpningar.

Mg-Al-Zn-legeringen AZ91D uppvisar en utmärkt kombination av styrka, gjutbarhet och korrosionsbeständighet. Dess mekaniska egenskaper vid förhöjd temperatur, som tex kryphållfasthet, är låga. Dessutom är korrelationen mellan mikrostruktur och mekaniska egenskaper oklar. Denna avhandling syftade till att ge ny kunskap om mikrostrukturens roll för magnesiumlegeringars mekaniska egenskaper. Slutligen var materialets egenskaper i förhållande till processparametrar vid tillverkningen av stort intresse.

En omfattande karaktärisering av kornstorleks-, sekundära dendritarmavstånds (SDAS)-fördelning och fraktion av Mg17Al12 utfördes med hjälp av optisk mikroskopering och diffraktion av bakåtspridda elektroner (EBSD). Mikrostrukturen korrelerades till sträckgränsen (Rp0.2), brottstyrkan och brottförlängningen. Det föreslogs att den intermetalliska fasen, Mg17Al12, spelar en viktig roll vid bestämning av legeringens mekaniska och fysikaliska egenskaper vid temperaturintervall från rumstemperatur upp till 190°C genom att bilda ett styvt nätverk av intermetaller. Uppkomsten av ett sådant nätverk stöddes genom en studie av den termiska expansionen av legeringen för olika fraktioner av Mg17Al12.

En fysikalisk konstitutiv modell med ett brett giltighetsområde användes framgångsrikt för att beskriva det plastiska flytbeteendet hos AZ91D för olika mikrostrukturer. De temperaturberoende variablerna i modellen korrelerade ganska väl med materialets underliggande fysik. Modellen validerades genom att jämföra dislokationstätheten som predikterades av modellen och den med EBSD uppmätta dislokationstätheten.

Påverkan av pressgjutningsparametrar på geometrisk tolerans och restspänning hos de gjutna komponenterna studerades. Vidare studerades geometrisk tolerans och restspänning av komponenter efter pening och målning. Intressant nog hade eftermatningsfasen en stor effekt på geometrisk tolerans och restspänningar. Dessutom hade temperaturen på den fasta formhalvan av verktyget även ett visst inflytande på komponentens geometriska tolerans och restspänning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Engineering, 2017. 77 p.
Series
JTH Dissertation Series, 30
Keyword
Magnesium; Magnesium Alloy; AZ91D; High-Pressure Die-Casting; Mechanical Property; Microstructural Characterisation; Physical Modelling; Dislocations; Distortion; Residual Stress, Magnesium; Magnesiumlegering, AZ91D; Pressgjutna, Mekanisk Egenskap, Mikrostrukturkarakterisering, Fysikalisk Modellering; Flytspänning; Dislokationer; Geometrisk Tolerans; Restspänning
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38148 (URN)978-91-87289-31-6 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20100280
Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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