20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean
2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 23, 13844-13852 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air−water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water−air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air−surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 49, no 23, 13844-13852 p.
Organochlorine pesticides, currently used pesticides, long-range transport, global processes
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources Water Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122986DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01303ISI: 000365930500015PubMedID: 26196214OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-122986DiVA: diva2:875440
Funding agencies: Environment Canada; Arctic Net; Northern Contaminants Program (Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada); Centre for Global Science, University of Toronto; Northern Science Training Program, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada;2015-12-012015-12-012016-07-21