Functional Binders at the Interface of Negative and Positive Electrodes in Lithium Batteries
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
In this thesis, electrode binders as vital components in the fabrication of composite electrodes for lithium-ion (LIB) and lithium-sulfur batteries (LiSB) have been investigated.
Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVdF) was studied as binder for sulfur-carbon positive electrodes by a combination of galvanostatic cycling and nitrogen absorption. Poor binder swelling in the electrolyte and pore blocking in the porous carbon were identified as origins of low discharge capacity, rendering PVdF-based binders an unsuitable choice for LiSBs. More promising candidates are blends of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). It was found that these polymers interact with soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates generated during the cell reaction. They can increase the discharge capacity, while simultaneously improving the capacity retention and reducing the self-discharge of the LiSB. In conclusion, these binders improve the local electrolyte environment at the electrode interface.
Graphite electrodes for LIBs are rendered considerably more stable in ‘aggressive’ electrolytes (a propylene carbonate rich formulation and an ether-based electrolyte) with the poorly swellable binders poly(sodium acrylate) (PAA-Na) and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na). The higher interfacial impedance seen for the conventional PVdF binder suggests a protective polymer layer on the particles. By reducing the binder content, it was found that PAA-Na has a stronger affinity towards electrode components with high surface areas, which is attributed to a flexible polymer backbone and a higher density of functional groups.
Lastly, a graphite electrode was combined with a sulfur electrode to yield a balanced graphite-sulfur cell. Due to a more stable electrode-electrolyte interface the self-discharge of this cell could be reduced and the cycle life was extended significantly. This example demonstrates the possible benefits of replacing the lithium metal negative electrode with an alternative electrode material.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015. , 58 p.
binder, lithium-sulfur batteries, graphite, lithium-ion batteries
Physical Chemistry Polymer Chemistry Materials Chemistry
Research subject Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267557OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-267557DiVA: diva2:873596
2015-12-16, 2005, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 16:15 (English)
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