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On Optimization of Quality of User Experience and Wireless Network Bandwidth in Video Content Delivery
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Mobile Service Laboratory (MS Lab).
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mobile video content today generates more than half of the mobile data traffic.The increasing popularity of mobile video on demand services poses great challenges to mobile operators and content providers. Frontmost, how to reduce the mobile video traffic load, while delivering high quality video content to mobile users without perceived quality degradations for the same (or cheaper) price? Battery lifetime represents another key factor of a user’s Quality of Experience(QoE). A lot of device energy is consumed by mobile network signalling and data transmission over new generation mobile communication systems. This thesis focuses on: (1) reducing the size of the video that is delivered to the enduser in the maximum achievable video quality, thus optimizing the wireless network bandwidth and the user-perceived QoE, and (2) reducing the energy consumption of a mobile device that is associated to data transfer over the radio interface, thus increasing the device’s battery lifetime. The main contributions have been given in providing the Over-the-Top video optimization and delivery schemes and recommendations on tuning their parameters in order to minimize the bandwidth and energy consumption of mobile video delivery, while maximizing the predictable user-perceived QoE. By preventing the video to be prefetched on low data rates and tuning the datarate threshold according to statistical properties of available data rates, we show that 20-70% of energy cost can be reduced by opportunistic prefetching, depending on the user’s pattern of available data rates. The data rate values ordered in time that have a large amount of serial correlation and low noise variance, or low average valueand high peak-to-mean ratio, are likely to yield the highest energy gains from content prefetching. Moreover, we show that energy gains are the largest when the threshold data rate is set close to an average data rate, due to the highest availability of data rates around this value, and for longer sleep time between the prefetching periods, which increases the probability of moving away from the areas with low data rates. Next, we focus on QoE-aware mobile video delivery solutions that are more bandwidth efficient without compromising the user-perceived video quality. They deliver a video over a varying data rate channel that is optimized for viewing on a mobile device in the highest perceptual video quality that can be achieved in the given video and network conditions. An optimized video consists of short segments in the minimum resolutions that satisfy the target perceptual video quality and have up to 60% reduced size compared to the video in the corresponding fixed video resolution, without perceptible quality difference. The delivery is performed by on demand download, context-aware prefetching, or in real time using the QoE-aware adaptive video streaming that runs over Dynamic Adaptive video Streaming over HTTP (DASH). By limiting the maximum bitrates of the requested video segments and using the remaining throughput to prefetch optimized video segments in advance of playout, we show that QoE-aware adaptive video streaming maintains a more stable perceptual video quality than DASH despite the fluctuations of the channel bandwidth, while using fewer number of bits, which improves a user-perceived QoE. The results of this thesis can help operators and content providers to reduce their costs and provide more content to their users at the same (or cheaper) price.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xii, 174 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT, 2015:17
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177011ISBN: 978-91-7595-739-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-177011DiVA: diva2:869182
Public defence
2015-12-04, Sal/hall B, Electrum , KTH-ICT, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151113

Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Energy consumption reduction via context-aware mobile video pre-fetching
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy consumption reduction via context-aware mobile video pre-fetching
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2012 (English)In: Proceedings - 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, ISM 2012, IEEE , 2012, 261-265 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The arrival of smartphones and tablets, along with a flat rate mobile Internet pricing model have caused increasing adoption of mobile data services. According to recent studies, video has been the main driver of mobile data consumption, having a higher growth rate than any other mobile application. However, streaming a medium/high quality video files can be an issue in a mobile environment where available capacity needs to be shared among a large number of users. Additionally, the energy consumption in mobile devices increases proportionally with the duration of data transfers, which depend on the download data rates achievable by the device. In this respect, adoption of opportunistic content pre-fetching schemes that exploit times and locations with high data rates to deliver content before a user requests it, has the potential to reduce the energy consumption associated with content delivery and improve the user's quality of experience, by allowing playback of pre-stored content with virtually no perceived interruptions or delays. This paper presents a family of opportunistic content pre-fetching schemes and compares their performance to standard on-demand access to content. By adopting a simulation approach on experimental data, collected with monitoring software installed in mobile terminals, we show that content pre-fetching can reduce energy consumption of the mobile devices by up to 30% when compared to the on demand download of the same file, with a time window of 1 hour needed to complete the content prepositioning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
Context-aware content pre-fetching, Mobile video, Reduction of energy consumption
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118911 (URN)10.1109/ISM.2012.56 (DOI)000317430600048 ()2-s2.0-84874276716 (Scopus ID)978-076954875-3 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, ISM 2012, 10 December 2012 through 12 December 2012, Irvine, CA
Note

QC 20130304

Available from: 2013-03-04 Created: 2013-03-04 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation of energy profiles for mobile video prefetching in generalized stochastic access channels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of energy profiles for mobile video prefetching in generalized stochastic access channels
2014 (English)In: Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking, and Services: 10th International Conference, MOBIQUITOUS 2013, Tokyo, Japan, December 2-4, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2014, 209-223 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper evaluates the energy cost reduction of Over-The-Top mobile video content prefetching in various network conditions. Energy cost reduction is achieved by reducing the time needed to download content over the radio interface by prefetching data on higher data rates, compared to the standard on demand download. To simulate various network conditions and user behavior, a stochastic access channel model was built and validated using the actual user traces. By changing the model parameters, the energy cost reduction of prefetching in different channel settings was determined, identifying regions in which prefetching is likely to deliver the largest energy gains. The results demonstrate that the largest gains (up to 70%) can be obtained for data rates with strong correlation and low noise variation. Additionally, based on statistical properties of data rates, such as peak-to-mean and average data rate, prefetching strategy can be devised enabling the highest energy cost reduction that can be obtained using the proposed prefetching scheme.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014
Series
Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, ISSN 1867-8211 ; 131
Keyword
Energy profiles, stochastic access channel, mobile video prefetching
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136739 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-11569-6_17 (DOI)000352148200017 ()2-s2.0-84910601630 (Scopus ID)978-331911568-9 (ISBN)
Conference
10th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services; Tokyo, Japan, 2–4 December, 2013
Projects
COSEM - COnvergent and SEmantic-aware Mobile networks and services
Note

QC 20150512

Available from: 2013-12-08 Created: 2013-12-08 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved
3. QoE-aware optimization for video delivery and storage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoE-aware optimization for video delivery and storage
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2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE 16th International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM) 2015, Boston, MA, USA, 2015, 1-10 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The explosive growth of Over-the-top (OTT) online video strains capacity of operators’ networks, which severely threatens video quality perceived by end users. Since video is very bandwidth consuming, its distribution costs are becoming too high to scale with network investments that are required to support the increasing bandwidth demand. Content providers and operators are searching for solutions to reduce this video traffic load, without degrading their customers’ perceived Quality ofExperience (QoE). This paper proposes a method that can programmatically optimize video content for desired QoE accordingto perceptual video quality and device display properties, while achieving bandwidth and storage savings for content providers, operators, and end users. The preliminary results obtained with Samsung Galaxy S3 phone show that up to 60% savings can be achieved by optimizing movies without compromising the perceptible video quality, and up to 70% for perceptible, but not annoying video quality difference. Tailoring video optimization to individual user perception can provide seamless QoE delivery across all users, with a low overhead (i.e., 10%) required to achieve this goal. Finally, two applications of video optimization: QoE-aware delivery and storage, are proposed and examined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boston, MA, USA: , 2015
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177014 (URN)10.1109/WoWMoM.2015.7158122 (DOI)000380552200002 ()2-s2.0-84943158818 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-8461-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 16th International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM), Boston, 2015
Note

QC 20151113

Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2016-11-14Bibliographically approved
4. Towards QoE-aware adaptive video streaming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards QoE-aware adaptive video streaming
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2016 (English)In: 2015 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Quality of Service (IWQoS), IEEE, 2016, 75-76 p., 7404713Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a novel QoE-aware adaptive video streaming method that enhances the viewing experience on mobile devices and reduces cellular network bandwidth consumed by Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) by considering perceptual video quality and data rate channel conditions in the bitrate adaptation process. By streaming an optimized video for the particular video quality and channel conditions toa mobile device, we can improve the worst video qualities causedby DASH streaming and reduce quality variations using fewer number of bits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keyword
QoE, Adaptive video streaming, DASH
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177016 (URN)10.1109/IWQoS.2015.7404713 (DOI)000381505400019 ()2-s2.0-84963981996 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-7113-1 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Quality of Service (IWQoS 2015), Portland, Oregon, USA, June 15-16th 2015
Note

QC 20170330

Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-03-30Bibliographically approved
5. SIP-based context distribution: Does aggregation pay off?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SIP-based context distribution: Does aggregation pay off?
2010 (English)In: Computer communication review, ISSN 0146-4833, E-ISSN 1943-5819, Vol. 40, no 5, 35-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context-aware applications need quickly access to current context information, in order to adapt their behavior before this context changes. To achieve this, the context distribution mechanism has to timely discover context sources that can provide a particular context type, then acquire and distribute context information from these sources to the applications that requested this type of information. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art context distribution mechanisms according to identified requirements, then introduces a resource list-based subscription/notification mechanism for context sharing. This SIP-based mechanism enables subscriptions to a resource list containing URIs of multiple context sources that can provide the same context type and delivery of aggregated notifications containing context updates from each of these sources. Aggregation of context is thought to be important as it reduces the network traffic between entities involved in context distribution. However, it introduces an additional delay due to waiting for context updates and their aggregation. To investigate if this aggregation actually pays off, we measured and compared the time needed by an application to receive context updates after subscribing to a particular resource list (using RLS) versus after subscribing to each of the individual context sources (using SIMPLE) for different numbers of context sources. Our results show that RLS aggregation outperforms the SIMPLE presence mechanism with 3 or more context sources, regardless of their context updates size. Database performance was identified as a major bottleneck during aggregation, hence we used in-memory tables & prepared statements, leading to up to 57% database time improvement, resulting in a reduction of the aggregation time by up to 34%. With this reduction and an increase in context size, we pushed the aggregation payoff threshold closer to 2 context sources.

Keyword
Aggregation, Context distribution, RLS, SIMPLE, XCAP
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-148940 (URN)10.1145/1880153.1880159 (DOI)000284877800005 ()2-s2.0-84873688435 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140815

Available from: 2014-08-15 Created: 2014-08-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
6. Evaluation of context distribution methods via Bluetooth and WLAN: Insights gained while examining Battery Power Consumption
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of context distribution methods via Bluetooth and WLAN: Insights gained while examining Battery Power Consumption
2008 (English)In: MobiQuitous 2008 - 5th International ICST Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In a traditional context-aware system, most context information is local to a device. However, we may need access to context information from outside the device. Increasingly mobile electronic devices are equipped with Bluetooth and/or WLAN network interfaces. Both of these technologies enable ad hoc discovery & networking. In this paper we evaluate the use of these technologies for context distribution within a local area (i.e., limited to a single hop). Using Bluetooth, we begin by discovering devices using Bluetooth's discovery protocol, collect their context information, create an XML file containing this information, and distribute this file to all discovered devices, such that every device now has the same context information. Next we perform the same discovery, collect, and distribute functions, but using WLAN. In each case we have performed the cycle of operations starting with a fully charged battery and continuing until the device was not able to utilize the selected wireless interface any longer. Finally we compare both approaches to context distribution in terms of battery power consumption. We observe that Bluetooth consumes 2-6 times more energy for transmission of a 1MB file to two devices than to discover these two devices. Furthermore, the transfer of this file is two times slower than WLAN, and we must unicast this file to each device. Multicasting via WLAN proved to be less energy consuming than the Bluetooth transmission, if data is to be sent to more than three users. In addition, the energy to discover 2 devices along with their services using Bluetooth consumed 52 times more energy than to receive the same amount of data via a WLAN multicast. Thus, this paper shows that it is more energy efficient to distribute context knowledge to other devices, than having each device learn this information itself. Finally, we give equations for calculating the battery power consumption of transmitting data using any protocol that runs over Bluetooth or over WLAN.

Keyword
Battery power evaluation, Bluetooth, Context distribution, WLAN, Electric batteries, Energy efficiency, Multicasting, Semantics, Ubiquitous computing, Battery power, Battery power consumption, Context information, Context-aware systems, Mobile electronics, Wireless interfaces, Electron devices
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-167716 (URN)10.4108/ICST.MOBIQUITOUS2008.3613 (DOI)2-s2.0-84923164071 (Scopus ID)9789639799219 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International ICST Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services, MobiQuitous 2008, Dublin, Ireland, 21-25 July 2008
Note

QC 20150602

Available from: 2015-06-02 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved
7. Synthesizing context for a sports domain on a mobile device
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesizing context for a sports domain on a mobile device
2008 (English)In: 3rd European Conference on Smart Sensing and Context, EuroSSC 2008, 2008, 206-219 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In ubiquitous computing environments there are an increasing number and variety of devices that can generate context data. The challenge is to timely acquire, process, and deliver these data to context-aware applications. The role of context synthesis is to generate new knowledge, as a result of a reasoning process applied to context information that is already present in the system. The success of this mechanism mainly depends on the response time that the end-user or an application must wait for the response to a context query. This paper describes and evaluates an approach to context synthesis on a mobile device to be used by a set of applications in a sports domain. A scenario based on a live race at the Super Prestige Cyclocross in Gieten, Netherlands demonstrates the use of context synthesis to dynamically compose gaps and groups of cyclists in order to provide a nearly real-time virtual ranking service.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 5279
Keyword
Context modeling, Context operators, Context synthesis, Sport scenario, Computer systems, Mobile devices, Object recognition, Portable equipment, Telecommunication equipment, Ubiquitous computing, Context datums, Context informations, Context-aware, Do-mains, Netherlands, Reasoning processes, Response times, Ubiquitous Computing environments, Applications
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-154152 (URN)000260605300016 ()2-s2.0-57049146372 (Scopus ID)354088792X (ISBN)9783540887928 (ISBN)
Conference
29 October 2008 through 31 October 2008, Zurich
Note

QC 20141017

Available from: 2014-10-17 Created: 2014-10-14 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
8. Context retrieval and distribution in a mobile distributed environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Context retrieval and distribution in a mobile distributed environment
2007 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Context-aware services are gaining momentum in mobile computing. To enable rapid development of context-aware services,context information has to be retrieved from the environment, modeled,processed, and distributed to these services. MIDAS is a European research project concerning 3G and beyond, which aims to dene and implement a platform to simplify and speed up the task of developing and deploying mobile applications and services. MIDAS context engine provides mechanisms to retrieve, model, synthesize, and distribute context information in a distributed, mobile environment. This paper presents a way to retrieve and distribute context information using context queries and triggers. A novel approach to perform context synthesis will be presented using operators.

Keyword
Distributed context engine, context query, context trigger, context synthesis, context retrieval and distribution
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176929 (URN)
Conference
Third Workshop on Context Awareness for Proactive Systems (CAPS 2007)
Note

QC 20151113

Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-12 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved
9. Context inference of users' social relationships and distributed policy management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Context inference of users' social relationships and distributed policy management
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2009 (English)In: 7th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom 2009, IEEE , 2009, 778-785 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Inference of high-level context is becoming crucial in development of context-aware applications. An example is social context inference i.e., deriving social relations based upon the user's daily communication with other people. The efficiency of this mechanism mnaimily depends on the method(s) used to draw inferences based on existing evidence and sample information, such as a training data. Our approach uses rule-based data mining. Bayesian network inference, and user feedback to compute the probabilities of another user being in the specific social relationship with a user whose daily communication is logged by a mobile phone. In addition, a privacy mechanism is required to ensure the user's personal integrity and privacy when sharing this user's sensitive context data. Therefore, the derived social relations are used to define a user's policies for context access control, which grant the restricted context information scope depending on the user's current context. Finally, we propose a distributed architecture capable of managing this context information based upon these context access policies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2009
Keyword
Context access control policies, Context interference of user social relations, Context scope, User privacy
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-153577 (URN)10.1109/PERCOM.2009.4912890 (DOI)000268744400138 ()2-s2.0-70349306938 (Scopus ID)978-142443304-9 (ISBN)
Conference
7th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom 2009, 9 March 2009 through 13 March 2009, Galveston, TX, United States
Note

QC 20141009

Available from: 2014-10-09 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved
10. A Context-Aware Privacy Policy Language for Controlling Access to Context Information of Mobile Users
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Context-Aware Privacy Policy Language for Controlling Access to Context Information of Mobile Users
2012 (English)In: Security and Privacy in Mobile Information and Communication Systems: Third International ICST Conference, MobiSec 2011, Aalborg, Denmark, May 17-19, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012, 25-39 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper introduces a Context-aware Privacy Policy Language (CPPL) that enables mobile users to control who can access their context information, at what detail, and in which situation by specifying their context-aware privacy rules. Context-aware privacy rules map a set of privacy rules to one or more user's situations, in which these rules are valid. Each time a user's situation changes, a list of valid rules is updated, leaving only a subset of the specified rules to be evaluated by a privacy framework upon arrival of a context query. In the existing context-dependent privacy policy languages a user's context is used as an additional condition parameter in a privacy rule, thus all the specified privacy rules have to be evaluated when a request to access a user's context arrives. Keeping the number of rules that need to be evaluated small is important because evaluation of a large number of privacy rules can potentially increase the response time to a context query. CPPL also enables rules to be defined based on a user's social relationship with a context requestor, which reduces the number of rules that need to be defined by a user and that consequently need to be evaluated by a privacy mechanism. This paper shows that when compared to the existing context-dependent privacy policy languages, this number of rules (that are encoded using CPPL) decreases with an increasing number of user-defined situations and requestors that are represented by a small number of social relationship groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin Heidelberg: , 2012
Series
Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, ISSN 1867-8211 ; 94
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176930 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-30244-2_3 (DOI)978-3-642-30243-5 (ISBN)978-3-642-30244-2 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd ICST International Conference on Security and Privacy in Mobile Information and Communication Systems (MobiSec 2011)
Note

QC 20151113

Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-12 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved
11. Extending CPL with context ontology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending CPL with context ontology
2006 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Communication has always been an essential part of peo-ple's everyday life. Nowadays most of people would liketo be reachable on multiple devices at anytime, anyplace. As a consequence, there has been a need to know and exploit a user's availability for communication (so called presence information), so that he/she can control incoming callsand make the decision to accept this call or not based onthe user's current context. The appearance and acceptanceof Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) as a signalling protocol for next generation networks has opened the door for multiple services, such as Voice over IP (VoIP), chat, games,instant messaging, and other innovative communication services. Built on top of existing data communication networks, this has enabled easy integration of voice and data services. In this paper we present an idea on how to use the context information to enhance the power of existing SIP call control services, to enable users to have greater control over their incoming/outgoing calls. These services are implemented using Call Processing Language (CPL), a language to describe and control Internet Telephony Services. They are extended with context parameters to permit context-based decision making based on context ontology. We want to show how easy is to add new context parameters to the CPL and how complex criteria can be built using our solution.

Keyword
Context-aware, SIP, VoIP, CPL, call processing, ontology
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176931 (URN)
Conference
Workshop on Innovative Mobile Applications of Context (IMAC) at MobileHCI 2006, Espoo, Finland
Note

QC 20151113

Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-12 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved

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