Rheology of cement grout : Ultrasound based in-line measurement technique and grouting design parameters
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Grouting is performed in order to decrease the permeability and increase the stiffness of the material, especially soil and rock. For tunnelling and underground constructions, permeation grouting is done where cement based materials are pumped inside drilled boreholes under a constant pressure, higher than the ground water pressure. The aim of permeation grouting is to reduce the water flow into tunnels and caverns and to limit the lowering of the surrounding groundwater table. Cement based materials are commonly used as grout due to their availability and lower costs. To obtain a proper water sealing and reduce the lowering of the ground water table, a desired spread of grout must be achieved and the rheology of the cement grout is the governing factor for estimating the required spread. Rheological properties of cement grout such as viscosity and yield stress are commonly measured off-line using laboratory instruments, and some simple tools are available to make field measurements. Although the rheological properties of the grout that is used play a fundamental role in design and execution, no method has yet been developed to measure these properties in-line in field work. In addition to the real time measurement, there is no standard method for determining the yield stress for grouting applications. Despite the common usage of Bingham model fitting to determine the yield stress, the range of shear rate is often not specified or is neglected.
In this work, an in-line rheometry method combining the Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique with Pressure Difference (PD) measurements, known as “UVP+PD”, was successfully tested for continuous in-line measurements of concentrated micro cement based grouts. A major obstacle of using the ultrasound based methodology was the transducers, which would be capable of emitting sufficient acoustic energy and can be used in field conditions. The transducer technology was developed in a parallel project and the Flow-Viz industrial rheometer was found to be capable of detail measurement of the velocity profiles of cement grout. The shape of the velocity profiles was visualized, and the change in the shape of the profiles with concentration and time was observed. The viscosity and yield stress of the grout were determined using rheological models, e.g. Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley. In addition, rheological properties were determined using the non-model approach (gradient method) and the tube viscometry concept and were compared with results obtained using the rheological models. The UVP+PD method was found to be capable of determining the rheological behavior of cement grout regardless of the rheological model.
The yield stress of cement grout was investigated using off-line rheometry techniques and UVP+PD in-line measurements. Tests were performed applying different shear histories and it was found that two ranges of yield stress indeed exist. Therefore, the design value of yield stress should be chosen with respect to the prevailing shear rate at the grout front for the required spread of grout. In addition, an appropriate shear rate range should be used when a Bingham fitting is done to determine the yield stress. In order to estimate the shear rate, plug thickness and velocity for one dimensional and two dimensional geometry, a non- dimensional nomogram was developed. The advantage of using the nomogram is that it does not depend on the applied pressure and the rheological properties of the grout and can therefore, be used as a simple design tool. Analytical approaches were used for the estimation and good agreements were found with numerical calculations and experimental results.
In conclusion, in this work, it was found that it is possible to continuously measure the velocity profiles and determine the change of the rheological properties of cement grout using the ultrasound based UVP+PD method under field conditions. The yield stress was also investigated and it was found that two range of yield stress exist depending on the prevailing shear rate of the grout, which should be used for designing the grouting time at different conditions. In order to decide the design value of yield stress for grouting applications, a non-dimensional nomogram was developed that can be used to estimate the plug thickness, shear rate and velocity of the grout.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xvi, 73 p.
TRITA-JOB PHD, ISSN 1650-9501 ; 1021
grouting, grouting design, cement grout, Bingham number, shear rate, plug flow, thixotropy, yield stress, in-line rheology, UVP+PD, Flow-Viz, viscosity bifurcation, aging, off-line rheometry, pump characteristics
Research subject Civil and Architectural Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176885OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-176885DiVA: diva2:868713
2015-11-18, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Wallevik, Olafur, Professor
Larsson, Stefan, ProfessorHåkansson, Ulf, Adj. Professor
Funding for the project was provided by the Swedish Rock Engineering Research Foundation (BeFo), The Swedish Research Council (FORMAS) and The Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industry (SBUF), who are gratefully acknowledged. QC 201511122015-11-122015-11-112015-11-12Bibliographically approved
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