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High dynamic stiffness nano-structured composites for vibration control: A Study of applications in joint interfaces and machining systems
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology. Plasmatrix Materials AB. (Manufacturing and Metrology Systems)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4677-7005
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vibration control requires high dynamic stiffness in mechanical structures for a reliable performance under extreme conditions. Dynamic stiffness composes the parameters of stiffness (K) and damping (η) that are usually in a trade-off relationship. This thesis study aims to break the trade-off relationship.

After identifying the underlying mechanism of damping in composite materials and joint interfaces, this thesis studies the deposition technique and physical characteristics of nano-structured HDS (high dynamic stiffness) composite thick-layer coatings. The HDS composite were created by enlarging the internal grain boundary surface area through reduced grain size in nano scale (≤ 40 nm). The deposition process utilizes a PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition) method combined with the HiPIMS (High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering) technology. The HDS composite exhibited significantly higher surface hardness and higher elastic modulus compared to Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), yet similar damping property. The HDS composites successfully realized vibration control of cutting tools while applied in their clamping interfaces.

Compression preload at essential joint interfaces was found to play a major role in stability of cutting processes and a method was provided for characterizing joint interface properties directly on assembled structures. The detailed analysis of a build-up structure showed that the vibrational mode energy is shifted by varying the joint interface’s compression preload. In a build-up structure, the location shift of vibration mode’s strain energy affects the dynamic responses together with the stiffness and damping properties of joint interfaces.

The thesis demonstrates that it is possible to achieve high stiffness and high damping simultaneously in materials and structures. Analysis of the vibrational strain energy distribution was found essential for the success of vibration control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , ix, 71 p.
Series
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888
Keyword [en]
Vibration control, High dynamic stiffness, Metal matrix composite, Nano structures, Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), Adiabatic, Machining, Regenerative tool chatter
National Category
Nano Technology Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Composite Science and Engineering Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Chemical Sciences Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Production Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176869ISBN: 978-91-7595-740-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-176869DiVA: diva2:868453
Public defence
2015-12-01, M311, Brinellvägen 68, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 608800EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 260048VINNOVA, E!4329VINNOVA, HydroMod
Available from: 2015-11-11 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2015-11-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Improving machining performance against regenerative tool chatter through adaptive normal pressure at the tool clamping interface
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving machining performance against regenerative tool chatter through adaptive normal pressure at the tool clamping interface
2013 (English)In: Journal of Machine Engineering, ISSN 1895-7595, Vol. 13, no 1, 93-105 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chatter in machining process is one of the common failures of a production line. For a cantilever tool, such as a boring bar, the rule of thumb requires the overhang length of the tool to be less than 4 times the diameter. The reason is because longer overhang will induce severe tool vibration in the form of chatter during machining. When a longer overhang than 4 times diameter is necessary for performing special machining operations, damping methods are needed to suppress tool chatter. One of the methods is the constrained layer damping method. Materials, such viscoelastic material, are applied in the vibration node regions of the structure to absorb the concentrated vibration strain energy and transform the mechanical energy to heat. With a cantilever tool clamped in a tool holder, the clamping interface is usually the vibration node region. The friction in the joint interface with low normal pressure became another source of damping and can be used for tool chatter suppression in mechanical structures. Joint interfaces are well known to possess normal pressure dependent stiffness and damping. The normal pressure’s effect on the structures frequency response function had been observed by H. Åkesson [1] et al, and L.Mi [2] et al. However, the direct effect of the joint interface normal pressure on machining process stability hasn’t been investigated. In this paper, a cantilever tool with 6.5 overhang length to diameter ratio is investigated. The direct effect of the tool clamping interface’s normal pressure on the machining process stability is studied. Three different levels of clamping normal pressure are tested with an internal turning process. The machining results indicate another adaptable solution on shop floor for suppressing tool chatter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Poland: , 2013
Keyword
chatter, tool, internal turning, vibration, clamping, damping, interface
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Ljud och vibrationer; SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122424 (URN)
Projects
POPJIMXPRES
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production researchEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FoF.NMP.2010-1
Note

QC 20130521

Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2015-11-11Bibliographically approved
2. Anti-vibration Engineering in Internal Turning Using a Carbon Nanocomposite Damping Coating Produced by PECVD Process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-vibration Engineering in Internal Turning Using a Carbon Nanocomposite Damping Coating Produced by PECVD Process
2014 (English)In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 23, no 2, 506-517 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Machining dynamic stability has been enhanced through a damping coating based on a novel carbon-based nanocomposite material. The coating was synthesized using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, and deposited on to the round-shank boring bar used for internal turning and tested during machining. Comparisons between an uncoated and a coated boring bar were carried out at 0.25 mm and 0.5 mm depth of cut using a five times length to diameter ratio overhang, which are typical conditions known to generate detrimental mechanical vibrations. From sound pressure measurement it was found that the measured absolute sound level during process could be reduced by about 90% when using the tool coated with damping layer. Surface roughness measurements of the processed workpiece showed decreased Ra values from approximately 3-6 mu m to less than 2 mu m (and in 50% of the cases < 1 mu m) when comparing an uncoated standard tool with its coated counterpart. Moreover, it was found that the addition of an anti-vibration coating did not adversely affect other tool properties, such as rigidity and modularity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2014
Keyword
chatter, machining, vibration damping, coating, PECVD, HIPIMS, metal matrix composite, carbon nanocomposite
National Category
Applied Mechanics Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Composite Science and Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Nano Technology Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Ljud och vibrationer; SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122425 (URN)10.1007/s11665-013-0781-y (DOI)000330594800019 ()2-s2.0-84893576587 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Eurostars Nanocomfort E!4329, Vinnova
Funder
Vinnova, E!4329XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20140228. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Joint interface characterization method using frequency response measurements on assembled structures only: theoretical development and experimental validation on a workholding fixture for machining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joint interface characterization method using frequency response measurements on assembled structures only: theoretical development and experimental validation on a workholding fixture for machining
2015 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 77, no 5-8, 1213-1228 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A computation model based on inverse receptance coupling method is presented in this paper aiming for obtaining the joint interface's stiffness and damping properties using frequency response functions measured on assembled structures only. In the model, it is emphasized that the joint stiffness and damping should be modeled with frequency dependency. The model's validity is checked both through finite element (FE) simulation and experimental analyses. In the FE simulation example, the computation model gives more accurate results with noise-free data. In the experimental example, where noise in the data is unavoidable, the computation model is explored further for its applicability in the real industrial environment. Results from applications of the computational model show that it is even capable of obtaining the joint interface stiffness and damping values over the structure's resonance frequency. A viable process of predicting behaviors of workpiece with receptance coupling method through identifying the joint interface properties is presented in the end of the paper. The applicability of this computation model and the factors that influence the accuracy of the model are discussed in the end of the paper.

Keyword
Joint interface, Joint stiffness, Joint damping, Frequency response functions, Receptance coupling method, Inverse receptance coupling method, Finite element method
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Production Engineering; Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163992 (URN)10.1007/s00170-014-6539-3 (DOI)000350120000036 ()2-s2.0-84925467019 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 260048
Note

QC 20150427

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. Suppressing tool chatter with novel multi-layered nanostructures of carbon based composite coatings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suppressing tool chatter with novel multi-layered nanostructures of carbon based composite coatings
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 223, 292-298 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multi-layered nanostructured Cu and Cu-CNx composites synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition were applied in the clamping area of a milling tool to suppress regenerative tool chatter. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed a multi-layered nanostructure with excellent conformality, i.e. coating is not only uniform on planar surfaces but also around corners of the substrate. Cu:CuCNx nanostructured multilayers with thicknesses of approximately 0.5:1.6 mu m were obtained. With a diameter of 20 mm, the milling tool performed slotting processes at an overhang length of 120 mm. Modal analysis showed that a coating, with a thickness of approximately 300 mu m, can add sufficient damping without losing stiffness of the tool, to increase the critical stability limit by 50% or 100% depending on cutting direction.

Keyword
Milling, Tool regenerative chatter, Metal matrix composites, Nano-structures, Internal friction damping, Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD)
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Nano Technology Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170666 (URN)10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.03.043 (DOI)000356106600031 ()2-s2.0-84929497633 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 260048, 608800
Note

QC 20150707

Available from: 2015-07-07 Created: 2015-07-03 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
5. Constraining the shear strain in viscoelastic materials and utlization of the “incompressible” properties for damping treatment in hybrid joint interface module to improve their effect for vibration control in machining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constraining the shear strain in viscoelastic materials and utlization of the “incompressible” properties for damping treatment in hybrid joint interface module to improve their effect for vibration control in machining
2016 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 83, no 5, 1079-1097 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A hybrid joint interface module (HJIM) was developed using viscoelastic materials’ (VEM) “incompressible” property. The HJIM composes VEM layers compressed by screws. Its static stiffness and damping had been characterized by inverse receptance method. The analysis result showed that its static stiffness increases by nearly 50 % with increasing compression preload without compromising its loss factor. A comparison study of HJIM with a viscoelastic material joint interface module (VJIM) revealed that the change of the screws mechanical contact conditions affected the HJIM’s stiffness. Compression preload by fastening the screws, however, did not significantly affect the damping property of the HJIM. On the contrary to shear pre-strain, compression preload did not affect the VEM’s properties shown by studying the VJIM case. A workpiece was studied while fixed on the HJIM. Varying compression preload affected the stiffness of HJIM and that resulted in increased shear strain in VEM for certain modes while decreased shear strain in VEM for other modes. The affected shear strain in VEM altered the vibrational strain energy distribution and changed the receptance amplitude of different modes. In addition to apply the VEM where it is significantly strained, the analysis revealed that constraining the shear strain in VEM resulted in reduced receptance amplitude for different modes. The changes of receptance will further affect the vibration conditions in machining.

Keyword
Machining; Vibration; Damping; Viscoelastic materials; Inverse receptance coupling; Hybrid joint interface module;
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Production Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176865 (URN)10.1007/s00170-015-7487-2 (DOI)000371324500035 ()2-s2.0-84959146038 (Scopus ID)
Projects
PoPJIM
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 260048
Note

QC 20160407

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
6. High dynamic stiffness mechanical structures with nanostructured composite coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High dynamic stiffness mechanical structures with nanostructured composite coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 98, 24-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanostructured Cu:CuCNx composite coatings with high static and dynamic stiffness were synthesized by means of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) combined with high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping from cross-sectioned samples reveals a multi-layered nanostructure enriched in Cu, C, N, and O in different ratios. Mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated by Vickers micro-indention and model tests. It was observed that copper inclusions as well as copper interlayers in the CNx matrix can increase mechanical damping by up to 160%. Mechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus and loss factor were significantly improved by increasing the discharge power of the sputtering process. Moreover the coatings loss modulus was evaluated on the basis of indentation creep measurements under room temperature. The coating with optimum properties exhibited loss modulus of 2.6 GPa. The composite with the highest damping loss modulus were applied on the clamping region of a milling machining tool to verify their effect in suppressing regenerative tool chatter. The high dynamic stiffness coatings were found to effectively improve the critical stability limit of a milling tool by at least 300%, suggesting a significant increase of the dynamic stiffness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Applied Mechanics Nano Technology Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering; Production Engineering; Solid Mechanics; Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176864 (URN)10.1016/j.carbon.2015.10.074 (DOI)000367233000003 ()2-s2.0-84955307996 (Scopus ID)
Projects
HiPPOCAMP
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 608800
Note

QC 20160209

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved

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