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Stem cell transplantation and regeneration after dorsal root avulsion
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. (Regenerativ neurobiologi)
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Spinal root avulsion leads to paralysis and loss of sensory function. Surgical methods can improve motor function and ameliorate pain but sensory recovery in adults is poor. Previous studies have shown that cell transplantation or treatment with trophic factors can improve functional outcome in rodents after dorsal root transection or crush. Here, a dorsal root injury model, more similar to human avulsion injuries, was used. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the behaviour of different stem cells following transplantation to avulsed dorsal roots and asses their potential to serve as possible regenerative therapy. In paper I, different murine stem cell types were transplanted to avulsed dorsal roots in rats. Murine embryonic stem cells remained outside the spinal cord and were surrounded by glutamatergic terminals. Boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSC) formed elongated bands outside the spinal cord and migrated to the spinal cord as single cells. In paper II, transplanted bNCSC were further characterized. bNCSC remaining outside the spinal cord expressed glial markers and were associated with different types of sensory fibres. bNCSC that migrated into the injured spinal cord expressed different neuronal markers. In paper III, effects of bNCSC transplantation on local vasculature and glial scar formation were studied. bNCSC increase angiogenesis in a non dose response manner and participate in boundary glial scar formation. In paper IV, bNCSC spinal migration was analysed using two different injury models - dorsal root transection and dorsal root avulsion. In addition, bNCSC capacity to support sensory regeneration was assessed and the results suggest that bNCSC do not support robust regeneration of avulsed afferents. In paper V, an in vitro stem cell model system was used to assess the possibility of using artificial nanomaterials to deliver differentiation factors. Cells treated with either soluble factors or particle-delivered factors showed similar differentiation patterns. Stem cell transplantation offers several opportunities following dorsal root avulsion, including cell replacement and regenerative support. By elucidating the mechanisms by which stem cells can assist regeneration of avulsed afferents will allow for more targeted or combinatorial approaches, including growth factor treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , 62 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1162
Keyword [en]
Regeneration, dorsal root, sensory nerve, nerve injury, cell transplantation
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265853ISBN: 978-91-554-9410-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-265853DiVA: diva2:868313
Public defence
2016-01-08, B/C2:301, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-12-17 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2016-01-27
List of papers
1. Murine neural crest stem cells and embryonic stem cell derived neuron precursors survive and differentiate after transplantation in a model of dorsal root avulsion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Murine neural crest stem cells and embryonic stem cell derived neuron precursors survive and differentiate after transplantation in a model of dorsal root avulsion
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, E-ISSN 1932-7005, Vol. 11, no 1, 129-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spinal root avulsion results in paralysis and sensory loss, and is commonly associated with chronic pain. In addition to the failure of avulsed dorsal root axons to regenerate into the spinal cord, avulsion injury leads to extensive neuroinflammation and degeneration of second order neurons in the dorsal horn. The ultimate objective with the treatment of this condition is to counteract degeneration of spinal cord neurons and to achieve functionally useful regeneration/reconnection of sensory neurons with spinal cord neurons. Here we explore if stem cells transplanted on the surface of avulsed spinal cord can survive, differentiate and migrate into the damaged spinal cord during the first few weeks after this intervention. Murine boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) or embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived, pre-differentiated neuron precursors were implanted acutely at the junction between avulsed dorsal roots L3-L6 and the spinal cord. Both types of cells survived transplantation, but showed distinctly different modes of differentiation. Thus, bNCSCs migrated into the spinal cord, expressed glial markers, and formed elongated tubes in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) compartment of the avulsed dorsal root transitional zone(DRTZ) area. In contrast, the ESC-transplants remained at the site of implantation and differentiated to motor neurons and interneurons. These data show that both stem cell types successfully survive implantation to the acutely injured spinal cord and maintained their differentiation and migration potential. These data suggest that depending on the source of neural stem cells, they can play different beneficial roles for recovery after dorsal root avulsion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keyword
sensory neuron, spinal cord, dorsal root transitional zone, regeneration, migration, glial cells, Schwann cells, motor neurons
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218684 (URN)10.1002/term.1893 (DOI)000394173600012 ()24753366 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 20716
Available from: 2014-02-14 Created: 2014-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Boundary cap neural crest stem cells homotopically implanted to the injured dorsal root transitional zone give rise to different types of neurons and glia in adult rodents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boundary cap neural crest stem cells homotopically implanted to the injured dorsal root transitional zone give rise to different types of neurons and glia in adult rodents
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2014 (English)In: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, E-ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 15, 60- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The boundary cap is a transient group of neural crest-derived cells located at the presumptive dorsal root transitional zone (DRTZ) when sensory axons enter the spinal cord during development. Later, these cells migrate to dorsal root ganglia and differentiate into subtypes of sensory neurons and glia. After birth when the DRTZ is established, sensory axons are no longer able to enter the spinal cord. Here we explored the fate of mouse bNCSCs implanted to the uninjured DRTZ after dorsal root avulsion for their potential to assist sensory axon regeneration. Grafted cells showed extensive survival and differentiation after transplantation to the avulsed DRTZ. Transplanted cells located outside the spinal cord organized elongated tubes of Sox2/GFAP expressing cells closely associated with regenerating sensory axons or appeared as small clusters on the surface of the spinal cord. Others, migrating into the host spinal cordas single cells, differentiated to spinal cord neurons with different neurotransmitter characteristics, extensive fiber organization, and in some cases surrounded by glutamatergic terminal-like profiles. These findings demonstrate that bNCSCs implanted at the site of dorsal root avulsion injury display remarkable differentiation plasticity inside the spinal cord and in the peripheral compartment where they organize tubes associated with regenerating sensory fibers. These properties offer a basis for exploring the ability of bNCSCs to assist regeneration of sensory axons into the spinal cord and replace lost neurons in the injured spinal cord.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2014
Keyword
neural stem cell, sensory neuron, spinal cord injury, cell differentiation, nerve regeneration, cell replacement
National Category
Neurosciences Neurology
Research subject
Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218685 (URN)10.1186/1471-2202-15-60 (DOI)000337318200001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 20716Swedish Research Council, 5420
Available from: 2014-02-14 Created: 2014-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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