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Directional Transmissions and Receptions for High-throughput Bulk Forwarding in Wireless Sensor Networks
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden and Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2015, p. 351-364Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present DPT: a wireless sensor network protocol for bulk traffic that uniquely leverages electronically switchable directional (ESD) antennas. Bulk traffic is found in several scenarios and supporting protocols based on standard antenna technology abound. ESD antennas may improve performance in these scenarios; for example, by reducing channel contention as the antenna can steer the radiated energy only towards the intended receivers, and by extending the communication range at no additional energy cost. The corresponding protocol support, however, is largely missing. DPT addresses precisely this issue. First, while the network is quiescent, we collect link metrics across all possible antenna configurations. We use this information to formulate a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) that allows us to find two multi-hop disjoint paths connecting source and sink, along with the corresponding antenna configurations. Domain-specific heuristics we conceive ameliorate the processing demands in solving the CSP, improving scalability. Second, the routing configuration we obtain is injected back into the network. During the actual bulk transfer, the source funnels data through the two paths by quickly alternating between them. Packet forwarding occurs deterministically at every hop. This allows the source to implicitly "clock" the entire pipeline, sparing the need of proactively synchronizing the transmissions across the two paths. Our results, obtained in a real testbed using 802.15.4-compliant radios and custom ESD antennas we built, indicate that DPT approaches the maximum throughput supported by the link layer, peaking at 214 kbit/s in the settings we test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. p. 351-364
Keywords [en]
Directional antennas; Bulk data transmissions; Wireless sensor networks; Electronically controlled antennas
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266348DOI: 10.1145/2809695.2809720ISI: 000380612400028ISBN: 9781450336314 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-266348DiVA, id: diva2:867942
Conference
The 13th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 2015), November 1-4, 2015, Seoul, South Korea
Available from: 2015-11-08 Created: 2015-11-08 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Enabling Sustainable Networked Embedded Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling Sustainable Networked Embedded Systems
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Networked Embedded Systems (NES) are small energy-constrained devices typically with sensors, radio and some form of energy storage. The past several years have seen a rapid growth of applications of NES, with several predictions stating billions of devices deployed in the near future. As NES are deployed at large scale, a growing challenge is to support NES for long periods of time without negatively impacting their physical or the radio environment, i.e., in a sustainable manner. In this dissertation, we identify intertwined challenges that affect the sustainability of NES systems: co-existence on the shared wireless spectrum; energy consumption; and the cost of the deployment and maintenance. We identify research directions to overcome these challenges and address them through the six research papers.

Firstly, NES have to co-exist with other wireless devices that operate on the shared wireless spectrum. A growing number of devices contending for the spectrum is challenging and leads to increased interference among them. To enable NES to co-exist with other wireless devices, we investigate the use of electronically steerable directional antennas (ESD). ESD antennas allow software-based control of the direction of maximum antenna gain on a per-packet basis and can operate within the severe energy constraints of NES. In the dissertation, we demonstrate that ESD antennas allow solutions that outperform the state-of-the-art in sensing and communication in wireless sensor networks while supporting operations on a single wireless channel reducing the contention on the shared wireless spectrum.

Secondly, we explore the emerging area of visible light sensing and communication to avoid the crowded radio frequency spectrum. Visible light can be an alternative or a complement to radio frequency for sensing and communication. We make two contributions in the dissertation to make the visible light communication a viable option for NES. We design a novel visible light sensing architecture that supports sensing and communication at tens of microwatts of power. An ultra-low power consumption can make visible light sensing systems pervasive. Our second contribution brings high-speed visible light communication to energy-constrained NES. We design a novel visible light receiver that adapts to the dynamics of changing light conditions, and the energy constraints of the host device while supporting a throughput comparable to radio frequency standards for NES. Through our contribution, we take a significant step to enable visible light-based sustainable NES.

Finally, replacing batteries on sensor nodes significantly affects the sustainability of NES. Battery-free sensors that harvest small amounts of energy from the ambient environment have a great potential to enable pervasive deployment of NES. To support wide-area deployments of battery-free sensors, we develop an ultra-low power and long-range communication mechanism. We demonstrate the ability to communicate to distances as long as a few kilometres while consuming tens of microwatts at the sensor device. Our contributions pave the way for a wide-area deployment of battery-free sustainable NES.

Through the contributions made in the dissertation, we take a significant step towards the broader goal of sustainable NES. The work included in the dissertation significantly improves the state-of-the-art in NES, in some case by orders of magnitude.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 52
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1648
Keywords
Wireless Sensor Network; Energy harvesting; backscatter; RFID; Sensors
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346267 (URN)978-91-513-0279-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-07, 2446, ITC, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-18 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-04-18

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