Assessing the potential of fuel saving and emissions reduction of the bus rapid transit system in Curitiba, Brazil
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
The transport sector contributes significantly to global energy use and emissions due to its traditional dependency on fossil fuels. Climate change, security of energy supply and increasing mobility demand is mobilising governments around the challenges of sustainable transport. Immediate opportunities to reduce emissions exist through the adoption of new bus technologies, e.g. advanced powertrains. This thesis analysed energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of conventional, hybrid-electric, and plug-in hybrid-electric city buses including two-axle, articulated, and biarticulated chassis types (A total of 6 bus types) for the operation phase (Tank-to-Wheel) in Curitiba, Brazil. The systems analysis tool – Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR) and a carbon balance method were applied. Seven bus routes and six operation times for each (i.e. 42 driving cycles) are considered based on real-world data. The results show that hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric two-axle city buses consume 30% and 58% less energy per distance (MJ/km) compared to a conventional two-axle city bus (i.e. 17.46 MJ/km). Additionally, the energy use per passenger-distance (MJ/pkm) of a conventional biarticulated city bus amounts to 0.22 MJ/pkm, which is 41% and 24% lower compared to conventional and hybrid-electric two-axle city buses, respectively. This is mainly due to the former’s large passenger carrying capacity. Large passenger carrying capacities can reduce energy use (MJ/pkm) if the occupancy rate of the city bus is sufficient high. Bus routes with fewer stops decrease energy use by 10-26% depending on the city bus, because of reductions in losses from acceleration and braking. The CO2 emissions are linearly proportional to the estimated energy use following from the carbon balance method, e.g. CO2 emissions for a conventional two-axle city bus amount to 1299 g/km. Further results show that energy use of city bus operation depends on the operation time due to different traffic conditions and driving cycle characteristics. An additional analysis shows that energy use estimations can vary strongly between considered driving cycles from real-world data. The study concludes that advanced powertrains with electric drive capabilities, large passenger carrying capacities and bus routes with a fewer number of bus stops are beneficial in terms of reducing energy use and CO2 emissions of city bus operation in Curitiba.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 131 p.
advanced powertrain, Advanced Vehicle Simulator, ADVISOR, Brazil, BRT, bus rapid transit, carbon dioxide, CO2, city bus, Curitiba, driving cycle, emissions, energy consumption, energy efficiency, energy use, fuel economy, hybrid propulsion, hybrid-electric, parallel hybrid, passenger carrying capacity, plug-in hybrid-electric, Tank-to-Wheel analysis, vehicle simulation
Analyse, Brasilien, Emissionen, Energieeffizienz, Energienutzung, Energieverbrauch, Fahrzeugsimulation, Fahrzeugwirkungsgrad, Fahrzyklus, Fortschrittlicher Antriebsstrang, Hybridantrieb, Hybridelektrofahrzeug, Kohlenstoffdioxid, Kraftstoffverbrauch, Passagiertransportkapazität, Schnellbussystem, Stadtbus, Steckdosen-Hybrid, Vollhybrid
analys, bränsleförbrukning, drivlina, energianvändning, energieffektivit, energiförbrukning, fordonssimulering, hybriddrift, koldioxidutsläpp, körcykel, laddhybrid, passagerarkapacitet, stadsbuss, strombuss
Energy Engineering Energy Systems Vehicle Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176398OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-176398DiVA: diva2:866911
Subject / course
Energy and Climate Studies
Master of Science - Sustainable Energy Engineering
2015-10-20, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 13:00 (English)
Khatiwada, Dilip, PhD
Silveira, Semida, Professor