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Improved mapping of steel recycling from an industrial perspective
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3606-6146
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The results from this study show that it is possible to obtain data series on the steel scrap collection based on mass balance model on the crude steel production figures by steelmaking reactor type and additional knowledge on process metallurgy as well as information on inputs and outputs into the reactors with an area correlation coefficient of 0,91 compared to data obtained from trade statistics. Furthermore, the study shows that based on a new method it is possible to calculate the time duration of mass flows on a continuous basis. Furthermore, two complementary statistical dynamic material flow models that can be used to calculate the societal recycling rates of steel was constructed. These statistical models contribute to a standardized way of obtaining consistent results. The new models are able to segregate the non-recirculated amounts of steel into the hibernating steel stock available for future collection from the amounts of losses based on statistics. The results show that it is possible to calculate the amounts of steel scrap available for steelmaking at a given point in time. In addition, based on the new models it is possible to calculate recycling trends in society. Also, the models are able to calculate robust forecasts on the long-term availability of steel scrap, and test if forecast demand of steel scrap exceeds a full recovery. This due to that the steel scrap generation is a function of the collection rate of steel scrap. Also, a method for obtaining representative samplings on the alloy content in steel scrap called random sampling analysis (RSA) was developed. The results from the RSA show that it is possible to optimize the recovery of valuable elements in the production process of steelmaking based on the information on the composition of steel scrap.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , ix, 39 p.
Keyword [en]
Recycling rate, lifetime, steel scrap, scrap reserve, dynamic material flow modelling, environmental analysis, greenhouse gas emissions, energy, alloy content, forecasting, backcasting
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175393ISBN: 978-91-7595-743-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-175393DiVA: diva2:860830
Public defence
2015-11-16, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151020

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-13 Last updated: 2015-10-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. KTH Steel Scrap Model: Iron and Steel Flow in the Swedish Society 1889–2010
Open this publication in new window or tab >>KTH Steel Scrap Model: Iron and Steel Flow in the Swedish Society 1889–2010
2013 (English)In: Journal for Manufacturing Science and Production, ISSN 2191-0375, Vol. 13, no 1/2, 47-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

KTH Steel Scrap Model calculates material flows of iron and steel in the Swedish society based on statistics, mass balance and mass flow analysis and industry knowledge. The material flows of iron and steel were calculated for external scrap consumption, internal scrap, domestic steel scrap arising and net flow of iron and steel into the Swedish society. Model output on external steel scrap consumption and domestic steel scrap arising was compared to an earlier analysis done by Jernkontoret for the timeline 1980–2009. The results show that mass balance calculations are area wise corresponding to consumption figures based on trade statistics. In addition the difference in trend is assumed to be mainly due to stocking effect. Furthermore it is shown that mass balance and mass flow models could be used as a tool to calculate apparent scrap consumption based on crude steel production figures by process type.

Keyword
steel scrap, mfa, mass balance, statistics, circulation
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175721 (URN)10.1515/jmsp-2012-0033 (DOI)
Note

QC 20151020

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved
2. Use of volume correlation model to calculate lifetime of end-of-life steel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of volume correlation model to calculate lifetime of end-of-life steel
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 42, no 2, 88-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new mathematical model for calculating the lifetime of steel on an annual basis, called the volume correlation model is presented. The model compares the quantities of scrap collection with the steel consumption as well as evaluates the time difference between the two data sets. The lifetime of steel was calculated for the collected end-of-life steel amounts. The calculations were performed by assuming a full recovery of the steel consumption or a non-re-circulated accumulated steel stock in society denoted the full and true lifetime of steel. Based on the volume correlation model, the lifetime of steel was calculated for the total steel, low alloyed and special steel, and stainless steel in Sweden between 1898 and 2010. Previous studies on the lifetime of steel are based on experimental measurements and numerical calculations. The full lifetime of the total amount of steel from previous studies is 31 and 35 years for the years 2000 and 2006 respectively. Based on the volume correlation model the lifetime for the total steel amount, when assuming a full recovery of the material, was calculated as 34 and 37 years for these two years. This indicates that the lifetime of steel from the volume correlation model is in a similar range, but slightly higher, compared to previously reported data. The present results show that the model could be an alternative method to calculate the lifetime of steel and other recyclable materials on an annual basis. Results show that the lifetime of the total steel amount has continuously increased between 1975 and 2010. This indicates that the accumulated steel stock in society is still large enough to withstand the high collection rate of steel scrap. Furthermore, that there are as yet no lack of untapped resource of end-of-life steel scrap assets in Swedish society.

Keyword
Circulation, Lifetime; Recycling, Stainless steel, Steel, Steel scrap
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161968 (URN)10.1179/1743281214Y.0000000210 (DOI)000349565900002 ()2-s2.0-84920517931 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150407

Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
3. A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 1. Time-delays of mass flows and the Progressing and Backcasting model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 1. Time-delays of mass flows and the Progressing and Backcasting model
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175724 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved
4. A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 2. The societal steel scrap reserve and amounts of losses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 2. The societal steel scrap reserve and amounts of losses
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175727 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved
5. A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 3. Forecasting recycling trends and the environmental savings due to an improved scrap utilization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 3. Forecasting recycling trends and the environmental savings due to an improved scrap utilization
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175728 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved
6. Random sampling analysis on the alloy content in steel scrap and its impact on the electric arc furnace :
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Random sampling analysis on the alloy content in steel scrap and its impact on the electric arc furnace :
2014 (English)In: 2014 Shechtman International Symposium, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175733 (URN)
Conference
2014 Shechtman International Symposium, Cancun, Mexico
Note

NQC 2015

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved

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