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Interactive RFID for Industrial and Healthcare Applications
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis introduces the circuit and system design of interactive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. IoT has the vision of connectivity for anything, at anytime and anywhere. One of the most important characteristics of IoT is the automatic and massive interaction of real physical world (things and human) with the virtual Internet world.RFID tags integrated with sensors have been considered as one suitable technology for realizing the interaction. However, while it is important to have RFID tags with sensors as the input interaction, it is also important to have RFID tags with displays as the output interaction.Display interfaces vary based on the information and application scenarios. On one side, remote and centralized display interface is more suitable for scenarios such as monitoring and localization. On the other side, tag level display interface is more suitable for scenarios such as object identification and online to offline propagation.

For tag level display, though a substantial number of researches have focused on introducing sensing functionalities to low power Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID tags, few works address UHF RFID tags with display interfaces. Power consumption and integration with display of rigid substrate are two main challenges.With the recent emerging of Electronic Paper Display (EPD) technologies, it becomes possible to overcome the two challenges. EPD resembles ordinary ink on paper by characteristics of substrate flexibility, pattern printability and material bi-stability. Average power consumption of display is significantly reduced due to bi-stability, the ability to hold color for certain periods without power supplies. Among different EPD types, Electrochromic (EC) display shows advantage of low driving voltage compatible to chip supply voltage.Therefore this thesis designs a low power UHF RFID tag integrated in 180 nm CMOS process with inkjet-printed EC polyimide display. For applications where refresh rate is ultra-low (such as electronic label in retailing and warehouse), the wireless display tag is passive and supplied by the energy harvested from UHF RF wave. For applications where refresh rate is not ultra-low (such as object identification label in mass customized manufacturing), the wireless display tag is semi-passive and supplied by soft battery. It works at low average power consumption and with out-of-battery alert.

For remote and centralized display, the limitations of uplink (from tags to reader) capacity and massive-tag information feedback in IoT scenarios is the main challenge. Compared to conventional UHF RFID backscattering whose data rate is limited within hundreds of kb/s, Ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission have been verified with the performance of Mb/s data rate with several tens of pJ/pulse energy consumption.Therefore, a circuit prototype of UHF/UWB RFID tag replacing UHF backscattering with UWB transmitter is implemented. It also consists of Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) and Electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes for healthcare applications of real-time remote monitoring of multiple patients ECG signals. The ECG electrodes are fabricated on paper substrate by inkjet printing to improve patient comfort.

Key contribution of the thesis includes: 1) the power management scheme and circuit design of passive UHF/UWB RFID display tag. The tag sensitivity (the input RF power) is -10.5 dBm for EC display driving, comparable to the performance of conventional passive UHF RFID tags without display functions, and -18.5 dBm for UWB transmission, comparable to the state-of-the-art performance of passive UHF RFID tag. 2) communication flow and circuit design of UHF/UWB RFID tag with ECG sensing. The optimum system throughout is 400 tags/second with 1.5 KHz ECG sampling rate and 10 Mb/s UWB pulse rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xviii, 100 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 2015:15
Keyword [en]
Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID), Electrochromic (EC) display, energy harvesting, Ultra-Wideband (UWB), remote monitoring, Internet-of-Things (IoT).
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174380ISBN: 978-91-7595-717-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-174380DiVA: diva2:859879
Public defence
2015-11-04, Sal B, Elektrum, KTH-ICT, Kistagången 16, Kista, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151012

Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-06 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Intelligent Packaging with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Paper Display –A Passive Display Infotag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intelligent Packaging with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Paper Display –A Passive Display Infotag
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2012 (English)In: NIP28 : 28th international conference on digital printing technologies : technical program and proceedings : Digital fabrication 2012 : September 9-13, 2012, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada., The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2012, 164-167 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we study the electronic performance of the inkjet-printed electrochromic (EC) display which uses Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly (styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as the active material, and extract its equivalent RC model. Results show that by charging PEDOT:PSS with 1.8V for averagely 10s, it can be switched from transparent (oxidation state) to blue (reduced state) and keeps the color for an average of 300s in the absence of energy supply, consuming much lower power than other flexible display technologies. However, it suffers from significant crosstalk effects in passive-matrix addressing and from performance variation as sample changes or time goes on. Based on the results, we design a programmable digital display driver with two different operation modes, and analyze the feasibility to integrate such display function in passive intelligent packaging systems. System simulation results prove it as a promising solution from evaluation of power budget and driving ability with printed interconnections and offchip conductors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2012
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100335 (URN)000352920200049 ()2-s2.0-84875726463 (ScopusID)978-089208302-2 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, NIP 2012 and Digital Fabrication 2012; Quebec City, QC; Canada; 9 September 2012 through 13 September 2012
Note

QC 20120820

Available from: 2012-08-20 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2015-12-09Bibliographically approved
2. A Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Paper Display
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Paper Display
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on RFID (RFID), 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 118-123 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, an inkjet-printed electrochromic(EC) paper display integrated with passive UHF-RFID tag is introduced as a solution for passive electronic shelf labels (ESL). To address the system challenges of the limited power budget of passive UHF-RFID tags and the material aging of EC display, a feedback comparator integrated digital displaydriver is proposed based on the study of electrochromic, bi-stable and aging features of the EC display. Modularized baseband with different enableconditions and clock domains is implemented in the system design level. Moreover, to maintain the system functions when the input power is lower than the display refresh power, a duty-cycled power management unit (PMU) is activated to reduce the load current during energy scavenging and drive the display in short intervals, enabling the fast charging of the voltage rectifier and the correct output of the regulated supply for the core circuit. The design is fabricated in a 0.18-um CMOS process with an area of 2.25 mm2. Fed with EPC C1G2 protocol write command, experiments demonstrate correct refresh of EC display with 4 cm2 effective area. System sensitivity at the antenna reference point is basically immune to the display load. Further improvements can be achieved after careful chip-to-antenna impedance matching and PMU efficiency optimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Keyword
electrochromic display, bi-stability, aging, passive UHF-RFID, feedback comparator, duty-cycled power management
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123405 (URN)10.1109/RFID.2013.6548144 (DOI)000326738900017 ()2-s2.0-84881359034 (ScopusID)978-1-4673-5749-4 (electronic) (ISBN)978-1-4673-5748-7 (print) (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE International Conference on RFID, RFID 2013; Orlando, FL; United States; 30 April 2013 through 2 May 2013
Note

Qc 20130718

Available from: 2013-06-08 Created: 2013-06-08 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved
3. A 180 nm-CMOS Asymmetric UWB-RFID Tag with Real-time Remote-monitored ECG-sensing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 180 nm-CMOS Asymmetric UWB-RFID Tag with Real-time Remote-monitored ECG-sensing
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, 2015, 210-215 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes an asymmetric ultra-wideband - radio frequency identification (UWB-RFID) tag with electrocardiogram (ECG)-sensing capability for patients remote-monitoring in hospital environment. A UWB-RFID communication protocol is suggested for real-time transmission of undistorted ECG by interleaving ADC sampling and burst-mode UWB transmission. The proposed system shows a maximum accessing capability of 400 tags/second at 1.5 KHz ECG sampling rate with 10 Mbps UWB pulse rate. The tag consists of UHF-RFID receiver, UWB transmitter, ECG analog front-end, multi-input ADC and baseband circuitry integrated on two silicon dies. It was implemented by 6 mm2 -sized 180 nm CMOS technology. Electrodes for ECG-sensing are manufactured by inkjet-printing on polyimide substrate. Experiment results show that the tag transmits UWB pulses at 1 Mbps rate with 18 µW power. The printed electrodes conduct ECG waveform comparable to commercial electrodes.

Keyword
Real-Time Remote-Monitoring, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Asymmetric Ultra-Wideband - Radio Frequency Identification (UWB-RFID), Inkjet-Printed Electrodes
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175318 (URN)10.5220/0005286302100215 (DOI)2-s2.0-84936762426 (ScopusID)978-989-758-071-0 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
The International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, 2015, Lisbon, Portugal
Note

QC 20151012

Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-12 Last updated: 2016-09-05Bibliographically approved
4. Co-design of flip chip interconnection with anisotropic conductive adhesives and inkjet-printed circuits for paper-based RFID tags
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-design of flip chip interconnection with anisotropic conductive adhesives and inkjet-printed circuits for paper-based RFID tags
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2011 (English)In: 2011 61st Electronic Components and Technology Conference, ECTC 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 1752-1757 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we study the radio frequency performance of interconnect using anisotropic conductive film (ACF). A series of experiments are conducted in order to measure and model the electrical characteristics of inkjet-printed circuits on paper substrate as well as the impedance parameters of ACF interconnect at high frequency. Four-point measurement structure, time domain reflectometry (TDR), vector network analyzer (VNA) and de-embedded technology are used to ensure the accuracy of experiments. Equivalent circuit models are built based on the experimental results. Finally, these models are considered as parts of the matching network and circuit design for the RFID receiver, which can be co-designed for developing paper-based electronic systems. It is found that since the difference between RFID tags with and without ACF interconnects is negligible, the influence of ACF interconnects can be ignored for paper-based UHF RFID tag. ACF is a feasible interconnect material for paper-based RFID tags.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Series
, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, ISSN 0569-5503
Keyword
ACF interconnect;RFID receiver;anisotropic conductive adhesives;anisotropic conductive film;circuit design;de-embedded technology;electrical characteristics;equivalent circuit model;flip chip interconnection codesign;four-point measurement structure;impedance parameter;inkjet-printed circuit;interconnect material;matching network;paper substrate;paper-based UHF RFID tag;paper-based electronic system;radio frequency performance;time domain reflectometry;vector network analyzer;flip-chip devices;radiofrequency identification;
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49208 (URN)10.1109/ECTC.2011.5898749 (DOI)000302341400267 ()2-s2.0-79960436784 (ScopusID)
Conference
Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Lake Buena Vista, FL. 31 May 2011 - 3 June 2011
Note

QC 20111129

Available from: 2011-11-25 Created: 2011-11-25 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved
5. Design of wideband mixer and VGA for Software Defined Radio in RFID application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of wideband mixer and VGA for Software Defined Radio in RFID application
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2015 (English)In: NORCHIP 2014 - 32nd NORCHIP Conference: The Nordic Microelectronics Event, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents Software Defined Radio (SDR) in RFID sensing applications focusing on wideband mixer and VGA design. The wideband receiver can support UHF, UWB band for commonly used long-range RFID standards ranging from 400MHz to 6GHz. The wideband mixer is of folded topology with switching biased technique, achieving a maximum 11.5dB conversion gain with only an 8dB DSB noise figure and 16dB flicker noise at 10kHz. The VGA utilizes a four-stage modified Cherry-Hopper amplifier, along with DC-offset cancelling and common-mode feedback. A maximum gain of 67dB can be achieved with more than 600MHz of bandwidth. The design is implemented in a 65nm CMOS process. The total power consumption of the mixer and the VGA is 7mW by simulation. The die area of these two blocks is 0.045mm2.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-167409 (URN)10.1109/NORCHIP.2014.7004731 (DOI)2-s2.0-84921490439 (ScopusID)9781479954421 (ISBN)
Conference
32nd NORCHIP Conference, NORCHIP 2014, 27 October 2014 through 28 October 2014
Note

QC 20150522

Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved
6. A Passive UHF/UWB RFID Tag with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Polyimide Display for IoT Application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Passive UHF/UWB RFID Tag with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Polyimide Display for IoT Application
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a passive Ultra-High Frequency(UHF) Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tag withinkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) polyimide display andUltra-Wideband (UWB) transmitter for information display inthe Internet-of-Things (IoT) - both remotely by transmitting information to backend side and locally by displaying at tag side. The UHF part remotely powers-up and controls the tag asconventional passive RFID tag does. To overcome the limitations of uplink capacity and massive-tag information feedback, UWB transmitter replaces UHF-RFID backscattering to achieve Mbps transmission data rate and 2000 tags/sec tag identification rate. To provide an ambient and direct human-to-device displayinterface, EC display on polyimide substrate is integrated at tagside. Aggressive duty-cycling power management scheme with dual supplies is designed to drive EC display and UWB transmitter under the microwatt level tag power budget through RF energy harvesting. In this scheme, energy for display refreshing is accumulated over multiple power management cycles; energy for UWB transmission is stored over a load capacitor. Single-pixel addressing scheme with minimized pixelsize is proposed to further reduce display power and improve tag sensitivity by exploiting EC display bi-stability. The circuit prototype has been fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS process. Experimental results demonstrate that the EC display can be refreshed with tag sensitivity (input RF power) of -10.5 dBm at11.7 sec/cm2 update rate, and the UWB transmitter can bepowered up for 2 Mbps pulse rate and 35% operation duty cycle with tag sensitivity of -18.5 dBm.

Keyword
Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID), Electrochromic (EC) display, passive tag, energy harvesting, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) transmitter
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175320 (URN)978-989-758-071-0 (ISBN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-12 Last updated: 2015-12-11Bibliographically approved
7. Interactive UHF/UWB RFID Tag for Mass Customization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactive UHF/UWB RFID Tag for Mass Customization
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mass customization (MC) under the context ofthe Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to reform traditionalmass manufacturing. To contribute to MC from information communication and user interaction aspects, this work proposes an Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID tag with Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR UWB) transmitter and inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display. First, compared to conventional UHF RFID tags, the proposed tag shows advantages of higher data rate while still keeping low power consumption. A modified communication protocol for such tag is proposed to decrease the response time in multi-tag accessing scenarios to less than 500 ms/1000 tags by the pipeline of IR UWB transmission of tag response and UHF RFID reception of reader acknowledgement and by reducingthe length of empty slots. Secondly, the tag is integrated with a flexible Electro-chromic (EC) display manufactured by inkjet-printing on the polyimide substrate. The tag with the display works as an automatically refreshed paper label which offers an intuitive human-to-device interface to improve the efficiency of the offline workers. To conquer material variation while make use of long retention time of the printed EC display, the threshold voltage of EC display is utilized and a feedback comparator is designed to start refreshing EC display based on the threshold voltage. For functional verification, a Silicon-on-Chip (SoC) is implementedin UMC 180 nm CMOS process. According to experimental results: 1) the IR UWB transmitter shows performances of 1.02 V pulse amplitude, 900 ps pulse duration and 18 pJ/pulse energy consumption; 2) the EC display driver with a feedback comparator automatically starts to refresh display when the image fades out, and reduces the power consumption for retaining image to 1.98 mW per 1 cm2 display size. The UHF/UWB RFID display tag integrated on polyimide substrate is conceptually demonstrated at the end of the paper.

Keyword
Internet-of-Things (IoT), mass customization (MC), Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID, Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR UWB), inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) polyimide display
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175319 (URN)978-989-758-071-0 (ISBN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-12 Last updated: 2015-12-11Bibliographically approved

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