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Modelling, Analysis, and Control Aspects of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion. (Electrical Machines and Drives)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4694-802X
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with the modeling, analysis and control of a novel brushlessgenerator for wind power application. The generator is named as rotatingpower electronic brushless doubly-fed induction machine/generator (RPEBDFIM/G).

A great advantage of the RPE-BDFIG is that the slip power recoveryis realized in a brushless manner. This is achieved by introducing an additionalmachine termed as exciter together with the rotating power electronicconverters, which are mounted on the shaft of a DFIG. It is shown that theexciter recovers the slip power in a mechanical manner, and delivers it backto the grid. As a result, slip rings and carbon brushes can be eliminated,increasing the robustness of the system, and reducing the maintenance costsand down-time of the turbine.

To begin with, the dynamic model of the RPE-BDFIG is developed andanalyzed. Using the dynamic model, the working principle of the generatoris understood and its operation explained. The analysis is carried out atspeeds, ±20% around the synchronous speed of the generator. Moreover, thedynamics of the generator due to external load-torque disturbances are investigated.Additionally, the steady-state model is also derived and analyzed forthe machine, when operating in motor mode.

As a next step, the closed-loop control of the generator is considered indetail. The power and speed control of the two machines of the generator andthe dc-link voltage control is designed using internal model control (IMC)principles. It is found that it is possible to maintain the stability of thegenerator against load-torque disturbances from the turbine and the exciter,at the same time maintain a constant dc-link voltage of the rotor converter.The closed-loop control is also implemented and the operation of the generatorwith the control theory is confirmed through experiments.In the third part of the thesis, the impact of grid faults on the behaviourof the generator is investigated. The operation of the generator and its responseis studied during symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. An approachto successful ride through of the symmetrical faults is presented, using passiveresistive network (PRN). Moreover, in order to limit the electrical and mechanicaloscillations in the generator during unsymmetrical faults, the dualvector control (DVC) is implemented. It is found that DVC to a certain extentcan be used to safeguard the converter against large oscillations in rotorcurrents.

Finally, for completeness of the thesis, a preliminary physical design ofthe rotating power electronic converter has been done in a finite elementsoftware called ANSYS. The thermal footprint and the cooling capability,with estimates of the heatsink and fan sizes, are presented.

Besides, another variant of a rotating electronic induction machine whichis based on the Lindmark concept and operating in a single-fed mode is also investigated. It’s steady-state model is developed and verified through experiments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xi, 85 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2015:63
Keyword [en]
Brushless doubly-fed induction generator, dual vector control, dynamic model, induction machine, internal model control, Lindmark concept, low-voltage ride-through, passive resistive network, rotating power electronic converter, rotating exciter, symmetrical faults, synchronous machine, thermal model, unity power factor, unsymmetrical faults, vector control, wind turbines.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174349ISBN: 978-91-7595-691-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-174349DiVA: diva2:859059
Public defence
2015-10-19, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 20:23 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151006

Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experimental Validation of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator for Variable-Speed Operation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Validation of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator for Variable-Speed Operation
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates through experiments a differenttopology of a brushless doubly-fed induction generatorwith a rotating power electronic converter: the rotatingpower electronic brushless doubly-fed induction generator (RPEBDFIG),operated with variable speed and torque. The theorybehind the operation of the generator is presented, its dynamicmodel and control aspects are discussed, and closed-loop controlof the generator is implemented and verified through experimentson an 11-kW prototype. The measurement results show stableoperation for variable speed and torque regions. Moreover, itis shown that the integrated rotating exciter is sufficient torecover slip power and deliver to the grid, hence, verifyingsuccessful brushless operation. Besides, it is verified that thegenerator operates well in both regions of operation, i.e., the subsynchronousand super-synchronous modes, and is stable undertorque transients added by the rotating exciter.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174336 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
2. Dynamic Modeling and Control of a Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator with a Rotating Power Electronic Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Modeling and Control of a Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator with a Rotating Power Electronic Converter
2012 (English)In: Electrical Machines (ICEM), 2012 XXth International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, 900-906 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A different configuration of brushless doubly-fed induction generator is presented. The power electronic converters are mounted on the rotor rotating with it. The slip rings and carbon brushes are replaced by a rotating exciter which serves as a slip recovery device as well as a means of providing excitation to the rotor of the induction generator. The dynamic model of the brushless topology is derived and analyzed. Furthermore, feedback control of the topology is also implemented and analyzed. It is shown that the generator shows stable operation in steady state as well as in dynamic state at variable speeds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator, rotating power electronic IGBT converter, rotating exciter, slip power, variable speed operation, vector control
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102269 (URN)10.1109/ICElMach.2012.6349983 (DOI)000333806700136 ()2-s2.0-84870806512 (Scopus ID)978-146730142-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 20th International Conference on Electrical Machines, ICEM 2012; Marseille; 2 September 2012 through 5 September 2012
Note

QC 20120912

Available from: 2012-09-12 Created: 2012-09-12 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
3. Synchronous Operation of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Generator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synchronous Operation of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Generator
2016 (English)In: IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 250-255 p., 7392107Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the synchronous operation of a novel generator termed as the rotating power electronic brushless doubly-fed induction generator (RPE-BDFIG). It is shown that the generator operates well at the synchronous speed of the main machine, delivering the desired power to the grid. Furthermore, it is illustrated that the RPE-BDFIG behaves similar to a synchronous generator in the synchronous mode. The closed-loop control of the generator is implemented in real-time, and the current and voltage waveforms of the stator and rotor of the RPE-BDFIG are experimentally analyzed. The paper highlights the stable operation and full control of the generator during synchronous mode.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Keyword
Brushless doubly-fed induction generator, brushless excitation, closed-loop control, control machine, current control, dc-excitation, load angle, rotating power electronic converter, synchronous machine, synchronous mode
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174348 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2015.7392107 (DOI)000382950700056 ()2-s2.0-84973169083 (Scopus ID)978-147991762-4 (ISBN)
Conference
41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015, Pacifico YokohamaYokohama, Japan, 9 November 2015 through 12 November 2015
Note

QC 20161122

Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2016-11-29Bibliographically approved
4. Brushless Doubly-fed Induction Machine with Rotating Power Electronic Converter for Wind Power Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brushless Doubly-fed Induction Machine with Rotating Power Electronic Converter for Wind Power Applications
2011 (English)In: Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), 2011 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1-6, 20-23 Aug. 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper introduces, simulates and analyzes a new topology of a brushless doubly-fed induction machine with rotating power electronic converter for wind power applications. Topology consists of two machines, one is the main machine which is directly connected to the grid while the second machine is the auxiliary machine which handles the slip power. The rotor of the two machines are connected via a power electronic converter which is mounted on the shaft and rotates with it. The steady state equivalent circuit of the two machine configuration is developed and analyzed. It is shown through simulations that the stator terminals of the machine can be operated at a unity power factor for variable speed range. Furthermore, it is shown that the presented system operates at a high efficiency at rated load and unity power factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keyword
auxiliary machine, brushless doubly-fed induction machine, rotating power electronic converter, slip power, stator terminals, steady state equivalent circuit, unity power factor, wind power
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Elsystem
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102207 (URN)10.1109/ICEMS.2011.6073422 (DOI)2-s2.0-83355167129 (Scopus ID)978-1-4577-1044-5 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), 2011
Projects
Brushless Wind Generator with Rotating Power Electronic Converters
Note

QC 20120912

Available from: 2012-09-11 Created: 2012-09-11 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
5. Variable Reactive Power Control of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Generator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variable Reactive Power Control of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Generator
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper considers reactive power control of anew topology of a brushless doubly-fed generator—the rotatingpower electronic brushless doubly-fed induction generator (RPEBDFIG).It consists of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG),on whose rotor two power electronic converters and a rotatingexciter are mounted and rotating with its shaft. The rotatingexciter and power electronic converters supply reactive powerfrom the rotor of the DFIG, thus manipulating the powerfactor at the stator terminals. Theory for variable-reactive-poweroperation is developed and verified through experiments on an11-kW prototype.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174337 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
6. Behavior of a brushless doubly-fed induction generator with a rotating power electronic converter during symmetrical voltage sags
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavior of a brushless doubly-fed induction generator with a rotating power electronic converter during symmetrical voltage sags
2012 (English)In: Proceedings - 2012 20th International Conference on Electrical Machines, ICEM 2012, IEEE , 2012, 865-871 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Impact of the different magnitudes of symmetrical voltage dip on the performance of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator is presented. This type of topology consists of a doubly-fed induction generator with power electronic converter and an integrated exciter mounted on the shaft and rotating with it. The transient simulation study is carried out in order to investigate the magnitude of the voltage dip the rotor converters can withstand before a protection scheme is needed for Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) of the generator. Furthermore, successful LVRT under severe voltage dips is also performed using passive resistive network strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator, grid code, LVRT, passive resistive network, rotating power electronic converter, voltage dip, vector control
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102271 (URN)10.1109/ICElMach.2012.6349978 (DOI)000333806700131 ()2-s2.0-84870835336 (Scopus ID)978-146730142-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 20th International Conference on Electrical Machines, ICEM 2012; Marseille; 2 September 2012 through 5 September 2012
Note

QC 20120912

Available from: 2012-09-12 Created: 2012-09-12 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
7. Low-Voltage Ride-Through of a 2-MW Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Generator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Voltage Ride-Through of a 2-MW Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Generator
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents results for unsymmetrical lowvoltageride-through (LVRT) of a 2-MW brushless doubly-fedinduction generator with rotating power electronic converters.The behavior of the generator during various voltage dips isexamined and explained. The dual vector control of the generator,which assists the generator in riding through unsymmetricalfaults, and minimizes electrical and mechanical oscillations, ispresented. Furthermore, studies of the impact of phase-anglejumps and various magnitudes of voltage dips on the operationof the generator are presented.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174338 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
8. Extended Vector Control of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator under Unsymmetrical Voltage Sags
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extended Vector Control of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator under Unsymmetrical Voltage Sags
2012 (English)In: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE , 2012, 1793-1798 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the implementation of the extended vector control on a new type of brushless doubly-fed generator when subjected to unsymmetrical voltage dips. This new type of generator has partially rated power electronic converter and exciter mounted on the shaft and rotating with it. The unbalanced voltages introduce positive and negative sequence components in the generator. The negative sequence components gives rise to torque oscillations and extra heating in the generator and power electronics which could affect the life time of the shaft, gearbox and electronic equipment. Two separate synchronous reference frames are defined and standard PI controllers are implemented in the reference frames in order to control the positive and negative sequence currents independently. Through these means the effect of the negative sequence currents is mitigated and it is shown that the oscillations in the behavior of this new type of generator are considerably reduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. Annual Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1553-572X
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102272 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2012.6388929 (DOI)000316962901130 ()2-s2.0-84872965211 (Scopus ID)978-146732421-2 (ISBN)
Conference
38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2012; Montreal, QC; 25 October 2012 through 28 October 2012
Note

QC 20120912

Available from: 2012-09-12 Created: 2012-09-12 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
9. Dynamic and Steady-State 3-D Thermal Design and Investigation of the Rotating Power Electronic IGBT Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic and Steady-State 3-D Thermal Design and Investigation of the Rotating Power Electronic IGBT Converter
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper deals with a 3-dimensional developmentof a thermal model of a power electronic converter mountedon the generator shaft and rotating with it. The dimensions ofthe heat sink are determined and the temperature gradients ofthe converter, its heat sink, and shaft during natural and forcedconvection are analyzed for variable rotor speeds. It is shown thatthe chosen sizes of the IGBT and heat sink offers compact designof the rotating converter, which is sufficient for its mounting inthe limited space, offered by the generator shaft. Furthermore,transient temperature profile is also presented. Additionally,transient thermal profile of the converter and dimensions of thecooling fan are also calculated. Besides analysis of the coolingrequirements of the converter during over-currents due to gridfaults is also investigated.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174339 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
10. Transient and Steady-State 3-D Electro-Thermal Design and Analysis of the Rotating Power Electronic IGBT Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transient and Steady-State 3-D Electro-Thermal Design and Analysis of the Rotating Power Electronic IGBT Converter
2015 (English)In: IEEE InternationalElectric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC), 10-13 May 2015., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper deals with a 3-dimensional developmentof a thermal model of a power electronic converter mountedon the generator shaft and rotating with it. The dimensions ofthe heat sink are determined and the temperature gradients ofthe converter, its heat sink, and shaft during natural and forcedconvection are analyzed for variable rotor speeds. It is shown thatthe chosen sizes of the IGBT and heat sink offers compact designof the rotating converter, which is sufficient for its mounting inthe limited space, offered by the generator shaft. Furthermore,transient temperature profile is also presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology; Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174347 (URN)10.1109/IEMDC.2015.7409236 (DOI)000380534300199 ()2-s2.0-84965173631 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC)
Projects
Modelling, Analysis, and Control Aspects of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator
Note

QC 20151006

Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved
11. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Self-Excited Rotating Power Electronic Induction Machine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Self-Excited Rotating Power Electronic Induction Machine
2011 (English)In: IECON 2011: 37TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2011, 2048-2053 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the theoretical model and analysis of a novel topology of the self-excited induction machine using rotating power electronic converters. The power electronic converters are connected to the rotor of the induction machine and it is shown that the machine operates at unity power factor at variable load conditions including rated load. Special control strategy of the two converters helps in magnetization of the induction machine from the rotor. The experimental analysis is conducted in the industry using 11kW induction machine and close agreement is found between the theoretical model and the experimental results. Besides, the rotor resistance is varied and its effect on the power factor and performance of the machine is studied and analyzed.

Series
IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 1553-572X
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-92076 (URN)000299032402041 ()2-s2.0-84856551666 (Scopus ID)978-1-61284-972-0 (ISBN)
Conference
ICELIE/IES Industry Forum/37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial-Electronics-Society (IECON) NOV 07-10, 2011 Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Note
QC 20120326Available from: 2012-03-26 Created: 2012-03-26 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
12. Induction Machine at Unity Power Factor with Rotating Power Electronic Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Induction Machine at Unity Power Factor with Rotating Power Electronic Converter
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A new configuration for the self-excitation of the induction machine invented by Magnus Lindmark is presented. The power electronic converter using solid state switches is connected to the rotor while the stator is directly connected to the grid. Using appropriate control, the reactive power consumed by the motor can be generated in the rotor resulting in unity power factor operation. The rotor connected power electronic converter is also used for constant speed operation of the induction machine at variable torque.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sorrento: IEEE conference proceedings, 2012
Keyword
constant speed operation, induction machine self-excitation, reactive power, rotating power electronic converter, rotor connected power electronic converter, solid state switches, stator, unity power factor, variable torque
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Elsystem
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102208 (URN)10.1109/SPEEDAM.2012.6264391 (DOI)2-s2.0-84866904144 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-1299-8 (ISBN)
Conference
International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)
Projects
Brushless Wind Generator with Rotating Power Electronic Converter
Note

QC 20120912

Available from: 2012-09-11 Created: 2012-09-11 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved

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