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Efficient Resource Management for Many-Core based Industrial Real-Time Systems
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. (CORE)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1276-3609
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increased complexity of today’s industrial embedded systems stands inneed for more computational power while most systems must adhere to a restrictedenergy consumption, either to prolong the battery lifetime or to reduceoperational costs. The many-core processor is therefore a natural fit. Due tothe simple architecture of the compute cores, and therefore their good analyzability,such processors are additionally well suited for real-time applications.In our research, we focus on two particular problems which need to be addressedin order to pave the way into the many-core era. The first area is powerand thermal aware execution frameworks, where we present different energyaware extensions to well known load balancing algorithms, allowing them todynamically scale the number of active cores depending on their workload.In contrast, an additional framework is presented which balances workloadsto minimize temperature gradients on the die. The second line of works focuseson industrial standards in the face of massively parallel platforms, wherewe address the automotive and automation domain. We present an executionframework for IEC 61131-3 applications, allowing the consolidation of severalIEC 61131-3 applications on the same platform. Additionally, we discussseveral architectural options for the AUTOSAR software architecture on suchmassively parallel platforms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2015.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 221
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29290ISBN: 978-91-7485-237-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-29290DiVA: diva2:858435
Presentation
2015-11-06, Gamma, Västerås, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
PREMISE
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 16286Knowledge Foundation, 16256
Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2015-10-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Saving Energy by Means of Dynamic Load Management in Embedded Multicore Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Saving Energy by Means of Dynamic Load Management in Embedded Multicore Systems
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2014, 2014, 11-20 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Load balancing is widely used to optimize response times and throughput of software systems. When considering embedded systems, however, additional optimization goals like energy consumption become relevant. In this paper, we explore the use of load balancing in embedded multicore applications. We present extensions to three prominent load balancing schemes, enabling them to dynamically scale the number of active cores. We integrated the algorithms in a proprietary operating system targeting multicore embedded systems. Our evaluation, which is based on a telecommunication (VoIP) scenario, shows that a significant reduction in energy consumption is possible.

Keyword
Load BalancingMulticoreMultikernelDistributed Systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25176 (URN)10.1109/SIES.2014.6871180 (DOI)000345746200002 ()2-s2.0-84906667174 (Scopus ID)9781479940233 (ISBN)
Conference
9th IEEE International SIES SIES'14, 18-20 Jun 2014, Pisa, Italy
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore Systems
Available from: 2014-06-09 Created: 2014-06-05 Last updated: 2015-10-05Bibliographically approved
2. Limiting temperature gradients on many-cores by adaptive reallocation of real-time workloads
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Limiting temperature gradients on many-cores by adaptive reallocation of real-time workloads
2014 (English)In: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 2014, Article number 7005241- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The advent of many-core processors came with the increase in computational power needed for future applications. However new challenges arrived at the same time, especially for the real-time community. Each core on such a processor is a heat source and uneven usage can lead to hot spots on the processor, affecting its lifetime and reliability. For real-time systems, it is therefore of paramount importance to keep the temperature differences between the individual cores below critical values, in order to prevent premature failure of the system. We argue that this problem can not be solved by traditional approaches, since the growing number of cores makes them intractable. We rather argue to split the problem in the spacial domain and control the temperature on core level. The cores control their temperature by rearranging the load in a predictable manner during runtime. To achieve this, a feedback controller is implemented on each core. We conclude our work with a simulation based evaluation of the proposed approach comparing its performance against a previously presented algorithm. 

Keyword
Factory automation, Interactive computer systems, Computational power, Feedback controller, Future applications, Many-core processors, Premature failures, Real-time community, Temperature differences, Traditional approaches, Real time systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-27936 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2014.7005241 (DOI)000360999100192 ()2-s2.0-84946692516 (Scopus ID)9781479948468 (ISBN)
Conference
19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 16 September 2014 through 19 September 2014
Available from: 2015-04-30 Created: 2015-04-30 Last updated: 2016-01-18Bibliographically approved
3. A Many-Core based Execution Framework for IEC 61131-3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Many-Core based Execution Framework for IEC 61131-3
2015 (English)In: IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2015, 4525-4530 p., 7392805Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Programmable logic controllers are widely used for the control of automationsystems. The standard IEC 61131-3 defines the execution model as well as theprogramming languages for such systems. Nowadays, actuators and sensorsconnect to the programmable logic controller via automation buses. While suchbuses, as well as the sensors and actuators, become more and more powerful, ashift away from the current distributed operation of automation systems, closeto the field level, becomes possible. Instead, execution of complex controlfunctions can be relocated to more powerful hardware, and technologies. Thispaper presents an execution framework for IEC 61131-3, based on a many-coreprocessors. The presented execution model exploits the characteristics of theIEC 61131-3 applications as well as the characteristics of the many-core processor,yielding a predictable execution. We present the platform architectureand an algorithm to allocate a number of IEC 61131-3 conform applications.Experimental as well as simulation based evaluation is provided.

Keyword
many-core, IEC 61131-3
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29285 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2015.7392805 (DOI)000382950704084 ()2-s2.0-84973097911 (Scopus ID)
Conference
41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015; Pacifico YokohamaYokohama; Japan; 9 November 2015 through 12 November 2015; Category numberCFP15IEC-ART; Code 119153
Projects
PREMISE
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 16286
Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
4. Investigation on AUTOSAR-Compliant Solutionsfor Many-Core Architectures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation on AUTOSAR-Compliant Solutionsfor Many-Core Architectures
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD 2015), 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As of today, AUTOSAR is the de facto standard inthe automotive industry, providing a common software architectureand development process for automotive applications. Whilethis standard is originally written for singlecore operated ElectronicControl Units (ECU), new guidelines and recommendationshave been added recently to provide support for multicore architectures.This update came as a response to the steady increase ofthe number and complexity of the software functions embedded inmodern vehicles, which call for the computing power of multicoreexecution environments. In this paper, we enumerate and analyzethe design options and the challenges of porting AUTOSAR-basedautomotive applications onto multicore platforms. In particular,we investigate those options when considering the emerging manycorearchitectures that provide a more scalable environment thanthe traditional multicore systems. Such platforms are suitableto enable massive parallel execution, and their design is moresuitable for partitioning and isolating the software components.

Keyword
many-core, AUTOSAR, automotive
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29286 (URN)
Conference
Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design
Projects
PREMISE
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 16286
Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved

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