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Gear Rolling for Production of High Gears
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1021-0100
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Gears are used to transmit mechanical workfrom one point to another. They are widely used in different mechanisms and they are the most important components of a transmission system. Thus, it is important that they are manufactured with high precision to deliver the work with highest possible efficiency. The dominant gear production method is metal cutting, like hobbing. The gear manufacturing industry aims to replace their traditional production lines with greener processes and thereby urge engineers to think about using metal forming methods instead of the traditional metal cutting solutions when possible. Gear rolling is an interesting metal forming method that can be an alternative method to fabricate gear wheels.

Research on gear rolling firstly came into interest around 2000. Very few papers are published that covers the development of the method and its limitations and advantages. Almost all of these publications considered rolling of gear wheels with small modules. The focus of this study will be on application of gear rolling for gear wheels with large module (over 3 mm) where the amount of deformation is much larger than found in previous studies.

In this thesis the Finite Element Method has been used to simulate and predict the results of rolling of high gears. In addition to that experiments were performed to validate the numerical results and develop the modelling technique for further investigations. The main topic of discussion is about the gear quality as a measure of the success for the process. Extra attention has been paid to the effects of friction and process planning in the result of process loads and also on the gear quality.

The thesis structure is based on four published papers, and some additional results from the experiments which have not yet been published. According to the results of these papers, the effect of friction and process parameters are recognized in the final product quality. It is shown that FEM has a great potential in order to model and analyze the gear rolling process. A new approach to combine numerical methods with quality measurement to predict the process outcomes is also presented. The results show that gear wheels with a module of 4mm reach an ISO quality level between 11 and 12. This is substantially lower quality than can be obtained with metal cutting operations. The results of this thesis can be used as the starting point for future research to optimize the quality of gear rolling for high gears.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , v, 73 p.
Series
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 15:06
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
SRA - Production; Production Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173510ISBN: 978-91-7595-678-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-173510DiVA: diva2:853448
Presentation
2015-09-29, M 311, Brinellvägen 68, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VINNOVA, FFI SMART
Note

QC 20150914

Available from: 2015-09-14 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2015-09-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Finite Element Simulation as a Tool to Evaluate Gear Quality after Gear Rolling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite Element Simulation as a Tool to Evaluate Gear Quality after Gear Rolling
2013 (English)In: Current State-Of-The-Art On Material Forming: Numerical And Experimental Approaches At Different Length-Scales, Pts 1-3, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2013, Vol. 554-557, 300-306 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gear rolling is a manufacturing technique for gears with many advantages like reducedmaterial consumption, reduced scrap generation, fast cycle times, good surface quality andimproved final properties of the gear wheels compared to conventional production technology basedon machining. In order to make use of all these advantages it is desired to reach the final shape ofthe gear wheel already after rolling. This means that post treatments like grinding should beavoided. This puts high requirements on the shape accuracy after gear rolling.In this paper it was studied if finite element simulation could be used to evaluate the shape accuracyafter gear rolling. The measurement of shape accuracy of gear wheels is specified in standards likeISO1328-1. The allowed deviations from nominal shape are often of the order of 10-30 μm for verygood qualities. So if such evaluation shall be possible from a finite element simulation the accuracymust be of the same order.In order to have sufficient accuracy of the finite element simulation 2D simulations were performedon a spur gear. The FE code DEFORM was utilized. The shape accuracy was evaluated for gearrolling of two cases. One case had gears with the module of 1 mm. The other case involved gearswith a significantly larger module of 4 mm. This was an interesting case since it is known that it ismore difficult to roll the gear with good accuracy in large modules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2013
Series
Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1013-9826 ; 554-557
Keyword
Gear Rolling, Finite Element Method, Gear Quality Evaluation, Rolling of Large Module Gears
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105406 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.554-557.300 (DOI)000322092100035 ()2-s2.0-84880552390 (Scopus ID)978-303785719-9 (ISBN)
Conference
16th annual ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming; Aveiro, Portugal, 22-24 April 2013
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20130905

Available from: 2012-11-20 Created: 2012-11-20 Last updated: 2016-02-26Bibliographically approved
2. Finite Element Analysis on the Friction Effects in the Gear Rolling Process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite Element Analysis on the Friction Effects in the Gear Rolling Process
2013 (English)In: NEWTECH 2013, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gear rolling as a manufacturing method for gear wheels has a number of advantages in comparison with traditional gear production methods which makes it an interesting topic for scientific research. The main benefits are reduced material consumption, fast cycle time of the process, improved strength of the product due to the alignment of the microstructure during cold forming and a good surface quality.

There are several factors which can influence the process quality and accuracy of the geometry in the final state. One of the most important parameters is the friction between the tool and the blank during the forming process. Therefore it is of interest to study the effect of different friction models in finite element simulations to evaluate its effects on final gear wheel shape.

In this paper the shear friction model is studied. Two friction factors will be studied in this case. Two dimensional FE calculations will be performed with the code DEFORM. The results of the FE simulations and the effect of friction factor on gear flank and tip geometry are presented. One example is presented of the effect on the so called “rabbit ear “at the gear tip.

Keyword
Gear rolling, Friction, FEM, Metal Forming
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
SRA - Production; SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-137068 (URN)
Conference
NEWTECH 2013, International Conference on Advanced Manufacturing Engineering and Technologies
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20140212

Available from: 2013-12-10 Created: 2013-12-10 Last updated: 2015-09-14Bibliographically approved
3. Study of the effect of the reversal cycles in the gear rolling process by using finite element simulations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the effect of the reversal cycles in the gear rolling process by using finite element simulations
2014 (English)In: ESAFORM 2014, 2014, 134-141 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The manufacturing of machine components with sustainable and innovative methods is an interesting topic for research. Gears are some components which have complexity in both design and production technology. Therefore applying innovative methods on gear manufacturing can be of interest to industry. One of the most promising production methods for gear wheels is Gear Rolling. The gear wheel is formed during a certain rolling process from a cylindrical blank into the final designed shape. The process of gear rolling with rotational gears is progressing by running several rolling cycles with one, or two dies in contact with a work-piece. A specified rotational speed and radial feed speed is applied to the dies in order to form the required geometry on the blank. In this paper, the authors have simulated the process with the finite element code, DEFORM 3D. Especially the effects of reversal cycles on final gear wheel geometry have been evaluated from the simulations. Different settings for the rotation direction of the dies have been used and the effects are evaluated with specific quality criteria.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Production; Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161923 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.611-612.134 (DOI)000347481000019 ()2-s2.0-84902579084 (Scopus ID)
Conference
17th Conference of the European Scientific Association on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2014; Espoo; Finland
Note

QC 20150330

Available from: 2015-03-19 Created: 2015-03-19 Last updated: 2015-09-14Bibliographically approved
4. Process planning of gear rolling with the finite element method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process planning of gear rolling with the finite element method
2014 (English)In: 15th International Conference on Metal Forming 2014, 2014, Vol. 622-623, 986-992 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gear rolling is a new gear manufacturing process which can partly replace traditional gear milling processes. High gear wheels with modules of 4mm up to 6mm are of interest to truck manufacturing. The process is of interest since it involves no material removal and since it has the potential to give good performance of the gear wheels. The process must be adopted for the large plastic deformations which occur for gear rolling with large modules. In this paper special emphasis will be put to loads and torques during the gear rolling process of gear wheels with large modulus. The FE method will be used to model the plastic deformation process to fully form a gear wheel with the gear rolling method. The radial and axial loads and the torques in this process are predicted. The loads of the process are high compared to the situation for small gear wheels so simulation of load level is essential for the design of rolling machines for high gears.

Series
Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1013-9826
Keyword
Finite element method, Gear rolling, Loads, Penetration speed, Process plan, Rolling speed, Gear manufacture, Gears, Loading, Manufacture, Metal forming, Milling (machining), Plastic deformation, Wheels, Gear manufacturing, Large plastic deformation, Material removal, Rolling process, Truck manufacturing
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-167579 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.622-623.986 (DOI)2-s2.0-84923077535 (Scopus ID)9783038351931 (ISBN)
Conference
21 September 2014 through 24 September 2014
Note

QC 20150601

Available from: 2015-06-01 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2017-03-29Bibliographically approved

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