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Fängelse, skola, uppfostringsanstalt eller skyddshem?: Åkerbrukskolonien Hall för pojkar år 1876-1940
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2015 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)Alternative title
Prison, School, Reformatory or Shelter? : Hall Agricultural Colony for boys, 1876-1940 (English)
Abstract [sv]

År 1876 inrättades uppfostringsanstalten Hall utanför Södertälje. Anstalten var en av de första anstalterna i Sverige som tog emot pojkar i åldrarna 10-15 år som hade dömts i domstol till att insättas på uppfostringsanstalt. Dessutom tog Hall emot pojkar som låg i riskzonen för att bli brottsliga. Uppfostringsanstalter var under 1800-talet ett europeiskt fenomen och flera länder hade under mitten av 1800-talet inrättat uppfostringsanstalter. Hall var en plats för såväl straff, arbete och utbildning samt en plats för avskiljning från samhället där vistelsen skulle förbereda pojkarna/de unga männen för ett liv utanför institutionen. Avhandlingens övergripande syfte är att ta reda på hur Hall placerades i kraftfältet mellan staten och civilsamhället samt mellan fångvård och skola. Vad var egentligen en uppfostringsanstalt och hur förändras dess innebörder och identitet? Flera analyser har visat att anstalten hade tydliga associationer till fångvården både gällande språkbruk, metoder och bestraffningar. Samtidigt är det inte helt klart vilket klientel som anstalten skulle ta emot och vad anstaltens uppgift var. Det fanns dessutom otydligheter om hur barnen och ungdomarna skulle behandlas och vad anstalten förväntades åstadkomma med de intagna. Fångvårdens reformering som pågick under samma tidsperiod som Hall inrättades gav med största sannolikhet idéer för anstaltens organisation och utformning men samtidigt utvecklades anstalten i en allt mer pedagogisk inriktning präglad av tidens syn på barn och barndom. Det är därför associationerna till fångvården leder till att anstalten blir kritiserad. I samband med den nya lagstiftningen år 1902 och år 1924 blev Hall en av flera anstalter samtidigt som staten förespråkade pedagogiska inrättningar. Diskussionen om Hall behöver betraktas mot bakgrund av de diskursiva förskjutningar som pågick under Halls verksamhetsperiod. När Hall inrättades så var det framförallt den juridiska, moraliskt/religiösa diskursen som gjorde sig märkbar som senare ersattes av en medicinsk, pedagogisk diskurs. När staten tillsätter en utredning för att diskutera skyddshemmen år 1935 får föreningen kritik för att de inte klarade av sitt uppdrag. Det leder till att det tas beslut om att Hall ska lägga ned sin verksamhet samt att byggnaderna ska övergå i statlig ägo men med en annan verksamhetsinriktning: fångvård.

Abstract [en]

In 1876 the reformatory Hall was established outside of Södertälje by a philanthropic organization. The institution was one of the first in Sweden which accepted boys between ten and fifteen years of age who had been sentenced in a court of law to placement in a training school. Furthermore, Hall accepted boys who were considered to run the risk of becoming criminals. The reform schools were a 19th century European phenomenon, and during the mid-1800s reformatories had been started in several countries. Hall was a place for punishment, work and education as well as for isolation from society, and the stay there was supposed to prepare the boys/young men for a life outside the institution. The overall goal of the dissertation is to ascertain how Hall can be placed in the field of tension between the state and civil society and between correctional care and schooling. What was a reformatory, and how did its content and identity change? Several analyses have shown that the institution had clear associations with correctional care, both in regard to the terminology used, the methods applied and the punishments rendered. At the same time it was not altogether clear which clientele the institution should accept and what its assigned task was. There was also a lack of clarity concerning how the children and youths should be treated, and what the institution was expected to achieve with the in-mates. The reform of the prison system that was going on at the same time that Hall was established in all probability provided ideas for the organization and character of the institution, but at the same time the institution developed steadily in a more pedagogical direction, influenced by the contemporary world’s view of children and childhood. It was thus the connection with criminal justice that led to criticism of the institution. In conjunction with new  legislation in 1902 and 1924 Hall became one of several institutions for which the state established guidelines for educational institutions. The discussion about Hall should be seen against the background of the shifts in the discourse that were on-going during Hall’s existence. When Hall was established it was above all the juridical and moral/religious discourse which was most notable, but it was later replaced by a medical and pedagogical discourse. When the state appointed a commission to study shelters in 1935, the philanthropic founding association was criticized for not fulfilling its task. That led to the decision to shut down the institution and allow the buildings to be transferred to the state. But the operation was given a new direction: criminal justice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. , 219 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 653Linköping Studies in Pedagogic Practices, ISSN 1653-0101 ; 26
Keyword [en]
Children, class, criminality, criminal care, delinquency, discipline, masculinity normality, philanthropy, school, training school, visibility and youths
Keyword [sv]
Barn, brottslighet, disciplinering, filantropi, fångvård, klass, maskulinitet, normalitet, skola, synliggörande, ungdomar, uppfostringsanstalt och vanart
National Category
History Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121126DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-121126ISBN: 978-91-7685-980-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-121126DiVA: diva2:852119
Public defence
2015-09-25, TemCas, Hus T, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-09-08 Created: 2015-09-08 Last updated: 2015-09-18Bibliographically approved

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