Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Adaptive capacity for social and environmental change: The role of networks in Chile’s small-scale fisheries
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. P. Universidad Católica de Chile.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Capacidad de adaptación al cambio social y ambiental : el rol de las redes en la pesquería de pequeña escala en Chile (Spanish)
Abstract [en]

World’s small-scale fisheries (SSF) face permanent and increasing external changes and shocks that challenge their viability and potential as an engine of human sustainable development. It is broadly assumed and expected that fishers and their communities have the capacity to adapt to current and future social and ecological changes. While social networks and social capital have been regarded as key components of adaptive capacity in SSF, there is little empirical understanding of how they operate and of their effectiveness in the context of multiple and overlapping perturbations.

 

This thesis examines the role of social networks and social capital in explaining the performance and responses of fisher organizations and communities to the implementation of a resource co-management policy, to the varied impacts of an abrupt coastal disaster, and to the interaction of both drivers. It consists of five papers that analyze the successes and failures of small-scale fisher organizations in the central-south of Chile in adapting and responding to the Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources system and to the massive February 2010 earthquake and tsunami. Paper I explores the levels of linking and bridging social capital among fisher organizations in Valparaiso and Bio-Bío regions, and their correlation with co-management performance variables. Paper II describes the material devastation of existing SSF capacity caused by the tsunami, and identifies the factors associated with immediate evacuation responses (i.e. incl. bonding social capital) that explain high levels of survival among fishing communities in the O’Higgins, Maule and Bio-Bío regions. Paper III studies how the interplay between internal (i.e. linking social capital) and external factors (i.e. levels of damage and isolation) can help explain differences in post-disaster recovery of fisher organizations in the Bio-Bío. Paper IV assesses whether and how co-management governance networks changed in the Bio-Bío as a consequence of tsunami impacts, as compared to the non-impacted case of Valparaiso. Paper V investigates the particular case of permanent earthquake-driven ecosystem transformations in a coastal wetland in Bio-Bío, the associated impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being, and the livelihood responses of fishing and non-fishing groups.

 

The findings show that developing broad and strong social networks and building social capital are necessary conditions of SSF organizations and communities’ response and adaptive capacities in the face of policy changes and environmental disasters. However, the study also indicates that they are not sufficient in and of themselves, which suggests a careful and nuanced consideration of these factors as potential answers to the problems affecting SSF. Thus, it is important to: 1) differentiate the types of social capital as potentially relevant for particular outcomes; 2) consider potential external factors affecting social capital; 3) take into consideration that social networks/social capital can change over time; 4) treat social networks/social capital as descriptive, bounded concepts about the social reality (i.e. not normative). Social networks and social capital provide SSF communities with adaptive capacity to cope with change, but ultimately the achievement of long-term sustainability is highly dependent on their levels of vulnerability and to the magnitude of the external perturbations.

Abstract [es]

En todo el mundo, las pesquerías de pequeña escala enfrentan permanentes y crecientes cambios y presiones externas que desafían su viabilidad y potencialidad como motor de desarrollo humano sustentable. Comúnmente, en el discurso científico y político, se asume y espera que los pescadores de pequeña escala y sus comunidades tengan la capacidad de adaptarse a los actuales y futuros cambios sociales y ambientales. Si bien las redes sociales y el capital social han sido considerados como elementos centrales en la capacidad adaptativa en estas pesquerías, existe un limitado conocimiento sobre cómo éstos operan y sobre su efectividad en el contexto de perturbaciones múltiples y simultáneas. Esta tesis examina el rol que cumplen las redes sociales y el capital social en explicar el desempeño y las respuestas de las organizaciones y comunidades de pescadores ante la implementación de una política de co-manejo de recursos (es decir, un proceso lento de cambio), ante los diversos impactos de un desastre costero imprevisto (es decir, un terremoto y tsunami), y ante la interacción de ambos factores. La ocurrencia inesperada de un desastre durante el desarrollo de la investigación fue tomada como una oportunidad de estudiar las capacidades adaptativas bajo diferentes condiciones, y de desarrollar análisis longitudinales y comparativos.     

  

La tesis se compone de cinco artículos que abordan los éxitos y fracasos de organizaciones de pescadores artesanales en el centro-sur de Chile en su esfuerzo por adaptarse y responder al sistema de Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentónicos y al gran terremoto y tsunami de Febrero de 2010. El Paper I explora los niveles de capital social de puente y escalera  en organizaciones de pescadores en las regiones de Valparaíso y BioBio, y su correlación con variables de desempeño en el co-manejo de recursos; este artículo, junto con Marín y Berkes (2010), representan también la línea base para algunos de los artículos siguientes. El Paper II describe la devastación material en la capacidad pesquera instalada como causa del tsunami, e identifica los factores de respuesta y evacuación inmediata (entre ellos el capital social de unión) que explican altos niveles de supervivencia entre las comunidades pesquero-costeras en las regiones de O’Higgins, Maule y BioBio. El Paper III investiga cómo la interacción entre determinantes internos (es decir, capital social de escalera pre y post desastre) y externos (es decir, niveles de daño material y aislación geográfica) pueden ayudar a explicar las diferencias en las trayectorias de recuperación de las organizaciones de pescadores en la región del BioBio después del tsunami. El Paper IV evalúa los cambios en las redes de gobernanza de co-manejo en el BioBio como consecuencia de los impactos del desastre, en comparación con la región de Valparaíso que no sufrió impactos. El Paper V investiga el caso particular de las transformaciones ecosistémicas permanentes, causadas por el terremoto, en un humedal costero en el BioBio, los impactos asociados sobre los servicios del ecosistema y el bienestar humano, y las respuestas y adaptaciones en los medios de vida implementadas por  parte de grupos costeros de pescadores y no pescadores.

 

Los resultados refuerzan la hipótesis general acerca del rol positivo que cumplen las redes sociales y el capital social como vehículos del acceso y movilización de valiosos recursos e información para la consecución de metas colectivas, y como expresiones de capacidad adaptativa en la pesca artesanal de pequeña escala. En el contexto del co-manejo pesquero, altos niveles de capital social de puente y escalera son un atributo de las organizaciones más exitosas. Este hallazgo implica la existencia de mayor capacidad adaptativa ante las complejidades de esta política y el funcionamiento general del sistema de co-manejo. En el contexto de las respuestas de corto plazo frente a un desastre, se encontró que el capital social de unión – junto con otros atributos socioculturales – representa un determinante central en la efectiva respuesta y evacuación inmediata, lo que indica la existencia de capacidad adaptativa arraigada en las comunidades costeras ante amenazas y desastres extremos e inesperados. En el mediano y largo plazo, altos niveles de capital social de puente fueron identificados como un elemento crítico de las trayectorias más óptimas de recuperación entre organizaciones de pescadores afectadas, reflejando la importancia de las redes de apoyo (que conectan diversas escalas) para superar los impactos de un desastre y explorar oportunidades de innovación.

 

Esta tesis muestra que desarrollar redes sociales amplias y fuertes, y construir capital social, son  condiciones necesarias para ampliar las capacidad adaptativas y de respuesta de las organizaciones y comunidades de la pequeña pesca artesanal de cara a cambios en las políticas pesqueras y los efectos de los desastres ambientales. No obstante, el estudio también indica que estas no son suficientes por sí mismas, y sugiere una cuidadosa y matizada consideración de las redes y el capital social como respuestas posibles a los problemas y desafíos que aquejan a las pesquerías de pequeña escala. En este sentido, es importante: 1) diferenciar los tipos de capital social (es decir, de unión, puente y escalera) como potencialmente relevantes para ciertos resultados esperados (y no para todos o cualesquiera); 2) considerar hasta qué punto los beneficios esperados de las redes sociales y el capital social dependen de factores externos (es decir, su valor contingente); 3) tomar en consideración que las redes y el capital social pueden cambiar en el tiempo como consecuencia de procesos y fenómenos internos y externos (es decir, su dimensión temporal); 4) tratar las redes y el capital social como conceptos descriptivos respecto de la realidad social (es decir, no normativos), que iluminan no solo la posición de los actores más aventajados, sino también la de los menos integrados y más vulnerables dentro de un sistema. Las redes y el capital social proveen a las comunidades de pescadores artesanales de pequeña escala de capacidad adaptativa para enfrentar cambios sociales y ambientales, pero – en última instancia – el logro de la sustentabilidad de largo plazo es altamente dependiente de los niveles de vulnerabilidad y de la magnitud de las perturbaciones externas que el sector deba enfrentar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University , 2015. , 43 p.
Keyword [en]
artisanal, benthic, Chile, coastal areas, collaborative management, disasters, ecosystem services, hazards, livelihoods, post-disaster, QCA, recovery, TURFs
Keyword [es]
Análisis Cualitativo Comparativo, artesanal, bentónico, Chile, desastres, manejo colaborativo, medios de vida, peligros, post desastre, recuperación, servicios ecosistémicos, zonas costeras
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Sustainability Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-119890ISBN: 978-91-7649-241-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-119890DiVA: diva2:851395
Public defence
2015-10-12, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-09-18 Created: 2015-08-27 Last updated: 2015-09-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Exploring Social Capital in Chile's Coastal Benthic Comanagement System Using a Network Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Social Capital in Chile's Coastal Benthic Comanagement System Using a Network Approach
2012 (English)In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 17, no 1, 13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Comanagement success relies on the proper administration of resources and on the capacity of users to establish and maintain positive social relationships with multiple actors. We assessed multifunctional relationships of small-scale artisanal fisher organizations engaged in a coastal benthic resources comanagement system in Chile to explore bridging and linking social capital, using an egocentric network approach. The formal leaders of 38 small-scale fisher organizations were surveyed to investigate (1) similarities and differences in social capital among fisher organizations and regions, and (2) possible effects of social capital levels on comanagement performance. Results show that the best performing fisher organizations are those with higher levels of linking and bridging social capital. Positive and strong correlations exist between linking social capital levels and comanagement performance variables. Importantly, fisher organizations considered to manage resources successfully consistently presented high levels of linking social capital, irrespective of variability in bridging social capital. Using egocentric networks allows understanding actors' differences in the comanagement social structure, thus providing critical insights for improving comanagement systems.

Keyword
artisanal fisheries, benthic resources, bridging social capital, Chile, coastal fisheries, comanagement, egocentric, human dimensions, linking social capital, territorial use rights
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
Research subject
Sustainability Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79710 (URN)10.5751/ES-04562-170113 (DOI)000302713700018 ()
Note

AuthorCount:4;

Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-09-11 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. The 2010 tsunami in Chile: Devastation and survival of coastal small-scalefishing communities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The 2010 tsunami in Chile: Devastation and survival of coastal small-scalefishing communities
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, no 6, 1381-1384 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2010, a tsunami generated by a magnitude 8.8 earthquake struck the central-south zone of Chile. Thisshort communication reports the direct impacts on the small-scale artisanal fishing capacity and coastallivelihoods along approximately 600 km of the coastline. Despite the magnitude of the catastrophe, theabsence of official warnings, and the failure of telecommunication networks only 8 fisher victims werereported out of a total death toll of more than 170. Results show that this trend is explained by socioculturalassets and a natural hazard subculture. This highlights the need to integrate contextual andbehavioural approaches in disaster management and rehabilitation policies.

Keyword
Artisanal fishers, Coastal communities, Hazards, Human dimensions, Natural disaster, Perceptions
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Sustainability Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-119200 (URN)10.1016/j.marpol.2010.06.010 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-07-30 Created: 2015-07-30 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
3. Social capital in post-disaster recovery trajectories: insights from a longitudinal study of tsunami-impacted small-scale fisher organizations in Chile
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social capital in post-disaster recovery trajectories: insights from a longitudinal study of tsunami-impacted small-scale fisher organizations in Chile
2015 (English)In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 35, 450-462 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased likelihood and severity of coastal disasters in the 21st century represent major threats for coastal communities’ resource management capacity and livelihoods. Disaster research has frequently looked for singular factors explaining why some communities are more resilient and better equipped to cope with and recover from disasters. This study draws on Chile’s 2010 tsunami to evaluate the effects of both internal (social capital) and external (level of damage and isolation) factors on fishing communities’ recovery trajectories. Using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) we assess how the concurrency of conditions explains fisher organization responses. By operationalizing social capital as the social networks developed for co-management, we also evaluate whether social capital developed for natural resource management can help communities overcome post-disaster challenges. Results show that the level of linking social capital is critical in determining post-disaster trajectories. While maintained or increasing levels of social capital are indispensable for positive trajectories to occur, a common denominator for less desirable post-disaster recovery trajectories is a low or reduced level of social capital. However, external factors, such as the amount of damage and geographical isolation, are also important in determining recovery trajectories, indicating the limits of relying solely on social relations for recovery. These concurrent factors can amplify or reduce the importance of supportive relationships. Understanding the implications of complex interplay between social capital and external factors for community recovery in response to coastal disasters can inform the design of more effective and efficient responses and policies in Chile and more broadly. Furthermore, social capital developed for the purpose of co-management of natural resources can actually promote desirable post-disaster trajectories.

Keyword
coastal disasters, livelihoods, longitudinal, social networks, Qualitative Comparative Analysis, human dimensions, tsunami
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Sustainability Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-119201 (URN)10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.020 (DOI)000366767100040 ()
Available from: 2015-12-31 Created: 2015-07-30 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. Impact of disasters on co-management governance networks: insights from a longitudinal comparative analysis of Chilean coastal small-scale fisheries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of disasters on co-management governance networks: insights from a longitudinal comparative analysis of Chilean coastal small-scale fisheries
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Collaborative management networks are considered to increase users' resilience to environmental change and other hazards. Recent studies have explored which kinds of network structures better accommodate deliberate adaptive management to deal with uncertainty and change. However, we know little about how co-management networks change or adapt in response to actual social and ecological perturbations and disasters. In this research, we draw on longitudinal data to assess whether and how co-management facilitating relationships have changed after the 2010 Chilean tsunami in 21 fisher organizations in Bio-Bio region, as compared to 16 non-impacted organizations in Valparaiso region (control group). We specifically look at emergent patterns in the relationships between fisher organizations and multi-sector fishery counterparts (e.g., associated with post-disaster management and livelihood recovery needs) that might indicate changes in co-management governance networks. Our findings indicate that disasters, as the one analyzed, and other external perturbations are likely to change resource users’ relationships due to new priorities, needs and demands. These network adaptations can change information and resources distribution throughout these networks, affecting overall conditions and development opportunities for actors. Higher levels of trust, increased centralization and reduced fragmentation of relationships in BioBio region suggest higher adaptability of the network to eventual large external shocks.  Post-disaster adaptive co-management policies, in Chile and elsewhere, may highly benefit from being open to support, take advantage of and integrate post-disaster emerging relationships in decision-making. Attention to changing networks can help securing equitable access to key resources and information and enhancing the long-term sustainability of co-management. 

Keyword
artisanal, benthic, territorial user rights, hazards, shocks, adaptive networks
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Sustainability Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-119889 (URN)
Available from: 2015-08-27 Created: 2015-08-27 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved
5. Ecosystem Services and Abrupt Transformations in a Coastal Wetland Social-Ecological System: Tubul-Raqui after the 2010 Earthquake in Chile
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecosystem Services and Abrupt Transformations in a Coastal Wetland Social-Ecological System: Tubul-Raqui after the 2010 Earthquake in Chile
2014 (English)In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 1, 22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Natural disasters can trigger sudden transformations and move ecosystems to different states where the provision of ecosystem services is altered. These changes in ecosystem services affect local communities' well-being and challenge users' adaptation capacities. We used the ecosystem services framework to understand the impacts of abrupt transformations, in a coastal wetland, associated to a similar to 1.6 meter coseismic uplift after an 8.8 magnitude earthquake in Chile. Using mixed methods we (1) identified and prioritized ecosystem services from Tubul-Raqui wetland; (2) assessed conditions of services and human well-being before and after the earthquake; (3) investigated postcatastrophe human adaptations and responses; and (4) explored users' interests and visions about possible future social-ecological pathways. Results show spatially diversified effects of the uplift on ecosystem services, both negative and positive, representing threats and opportunities for different user groups around the wetland. The total loss of the cultivated seaweed pelillo is associated with the most manifest reduction in perceptions of well-being among coastal users. Adaptive capacities triggered by pre-existing livelihood portfolios generated intensification in the exploitation of less impacted or enhanced ecosystem services which could be reducing resilience. Results show that two years after the transformation there is little attempt to create untried, new beginnings in the Tubul-Raqui wetland from which user groups could evolve to a more innovative livelihood and resource management system after the shift. Although visions about the future are not homogeneous among users, common interests regarding the conservation of key services are shared. The analysis of abrupt transformations through an ecosystem services approach provides a powerful framework for the study of environmental change and associated impacts on local communities.

Keyword
adaptation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, natural disasters, perceptions, transformations, well-being
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Sustainability Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-103324 (URN)10.5751/ES-05633-190122 (DOI)000333908600003 ()
Note

AuthorCount:3;

Available from: 2014-05-13 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Adaptive capacity for social and environmental change(1013 kB)268 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1013 kBChecksum SHA-512
f486dd56ec9a6378cb30f7844ff4d856eac9bba7ea33e5768efd471cc090e37d9b4dee16e0e823f0a3e4ae60a61051e85b8aa5b1f998672fe81610703fdc80a5
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Marín, Andrés
By organisation
Stockholm Resilience Centre
Other Social Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 268 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 643 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf