[68Ga]Exendin-4: Bench-to-Bedside: PET molecular imaging of the GLP-1 receptor for diabetes and cancer
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Diabetes epidemic is underway. Beta cell dysfunction (BCF) and loss of beta cell mass (BCM) are known to be key events in its progression. Currently, there are no reliable techniques to estimate or follow the loss of BCM, in vivo. Non-invasive imaging and quantification of the whole BCM in the pancreas, therefore, has a great potential for understanding the progression of diabetes and the scope for early diagnosis for Type 2 diabetes.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is known to be selectively expressed on the pancreatic beta cells and overexpressed on the insulinoma, a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET). Therefore, this receptor is considered to be a selective imaging biomarker for the beta cells and the insulinoma. Exendin-4 is a naturally occurring analog of GLP-1 peptide. It binds and activates GLP-1R with same the potency and engages in the insulin synthesis, with a longer biological half-life. In this thesis, Exendin-4 precursor, DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 labeled with [68Ga], [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 ([68Ga]Exendin-4), was evaluated in different species models, namely, immune deficient nude mice, rats, pigs, non-human primate (NHP), and clinically in one insulinoma patient by positron emission tomography (PET), for its potential in beta cell imaging and its quantification as well as for visualizing the insulinoma. From internal dosimetry, the possible number of repetitive [68Ga]Exendin-4-PET/CT scans was estimated.
Pancreatic uptake and insulinoma tumor uptake of [68Ga]Exendin-4 were confirmed to be mediated by the specific binding to the GLP-1R. Pancreatic GLP-1R could be visualized and semi-quantified, for diabetic studies, except in rats. Nonetheless, we found conflicting results regarding the GLP-1R being a selective imaging biomarker for the beta cells. PET/CT scan of the patient with [68Ga]Exendin-4 has proven to be more sensitive than the clinical neuroendocrine tracer, [11C]5-HTP, as it could reveal small metastatic tumors in liver. The kidney was the dose-limiting organ in the entire species model, from absorbed dose estimation. Before reaching a yearly kidney limiting dose of 150 mGy and a whole body effective dose of 10 mSv, 2–4 [68Ga]Exendin-4 PET/CT scans be performed in an adult human, which enables longitudinal clinical PET imaging studies of the GLP-1R in the pancreas, transplanted islets, or insulinoma, as well as in healthy volunteers enrolled in the early phase of anti-diabetic drug development studies.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 72 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 1651-6192 ; 202
PET, [68Ga]Exendin-4, beta cell imaging, insulinoma, dosimetry
Endocrinology and Diabetes
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261629ISBN: 978-91-554-9323-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-261629DiVA: diva2:850859
2015-10-23, Fåhraeussalen, Rudbecklaboratoriet (hus C5), Dag Hammarskjölds väg 20, 751 85, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Gotthardt, Martin, Professor
Eriksson, Olof, ResearcherKorsgren, Olle, ProfessorJohansson, Lars, Senior lecturer
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