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Peakflow response of stream networks: implications of physical descriptions of streams and temporal change
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering. (River Engineering)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9202-3159
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Through distributed stream network routing, it has quantitatively been shown that the relationship between flow travel time and discharge varies strongly nonlinearly with stream stage and with catchment-specific properties.

Physically derived distributions of water travel times through a stream network were successfully used to parameterise the streamflow response function of a compartmental hydrological model. Predictions were found to improve compared to conventional statistically based parameterisation schemes, for most of the modelled scenarios, particularly for peakflow conditions.

A Fourier spectral analysis of 55-110 years of daily discharge time series from 79 unregulated catchments in Sweden revealed that the discharge power spectral slope has gradually increased over time, with significant increases for 58 catchments. The results indicated that the catchment scaling function power spectrum had steepened in most of the catchments for which historical precipitation series were available. These results suggest that (local) land-use changes within the catchments may affect the discharge power spectra more significantly than changes in precipitation (climate change).

A case study from an agriculturally intense catchment using historical (from the 1880s) and modern stream network maps revealed that the average stream network flow distance as well as average water levels were substantially diminished over the past century, while average bottom slopes increased. The study verifies the hypothesis that anthropogenic changes (determined through scenario modelling using a 1D distributed routing model) of stream network properties can have a substantial influence on the travel times through the stream networks and thus on the discharge hydrographs.

The findings stress the need for a more hydrodynamically based approach to adequately describe the variation of streamflow response, especially for predictions of higher discharges. An increased physical basis of response functions can be beneficial in improving discharge predictions during conditions in which conventional parameterisation based on historical flow patterns may not be possible - for example, for extreme peak flows and during periods of nonstationary conditions, such as during periods of climate and/or land use change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , x, 74 p.
Series
TRITA-HYD, 2015:2
Keyword [en]
Streamflow routing, peakflow predictions, parameterization, hydrological response, stage-dependency, flooded cross-sections, stream networks, backwater effects, temporal change, land use change
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172939ISBN: 978-91-7595-672-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-172939DiVA: diva2:850804
Public defence
2015-09-29, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150903

Available from: 2015-09-03 Created: 2015-09-02 Last updated: 2015-09-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Runoff modeling in flooded stream networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Runoff modeling in flooded stream networks
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Modern Technology of Dams – : the 4th EADC Symposium, Chengdu, China, October 12-18 2007., 2007, 441-450 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper outlines a procedure about how to create a compartment type of runoff model that is flexible for prediction of flows of different magnitudes. This methodology is expected to be most useful when applied to high flow situations, when predictions normally are conceived as extrapolations far outside calibration intervals. Focus is put on how to introduce response functions that include more detailed information regarding the river network geometry and the morphology of the channel cross-sections. The parametrisation formula is based on Manning’s equation for open channel flow and the geometrical data is derived from geographical information handled in a GIS software. These response functions can be expected to provide better extrapolations of the hydrograph for future extreme floods, especially for peak flows. This has implications for safety aspects of dams as well as for the economy of hydropower production.

Keyword
Peak flow modelling, response function, compartmental runoff model, river network geometry, hydromorphology, network routing model
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25301 (URN)
Note
QC 20101020Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-10-15 Last updated: 2015-09-03Bibliographically approved
2. Stage-dependent hydraulic and hydromorphologic properties in stream networks translated into response functions of compartmental models
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stage-dependent hydraulic and hydromorphologic properties in stream networks translated into response functions of compartmental models
2012 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 420-421, 25-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A distributed non-uniform routing model was constructed and applied to two stream networks in southern Sweden to investigate the effects of stage, topology and morphology on advective travel times within the stream networks.Using particle-tracking, we found markedly non-linear relationships between travel time distributions and discharge for both catchments under a range of hydraulic conditions, represented by discharges comprising percentiles between 30 and 99.9 extracted from the discharge data set for the two catchments in this study.The travel time distributions from the particle tracking were used to numerically parameterise the response function of a lumped hydrological model, which resulted in improvements, particularly in the prediction of high flows. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the routing procedure, particularly regarding the choice of Manning's friction coefficient and the choice of generic cross-sectional areas along the two stream networks showing that the uncertainty in routing parameters did not have a major effect on the final hydrograph. The new parameterisation performed better than the conventional model in every modelled case.A theoretical demonstration shows that correct descriptions of streamflow processes becomes more important with increased watershed scale, because the travel time within the stream network relative to the travel time on hillslopes increases with the watershed scale. The topology and topography of the stream network were shown to be the major factors influencing the network averaged travel time. These results demonstrate that physically based response functions (and model parameters) can be superior to compartmental model parameters that are based on numerical calibration and that are extrapolated to account for conditions during hydrological extremes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
Streamflow; Hydrological model; Distributed routing; Response function; Geomorphologic; Hydrodynamic
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-58433 (URN)10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.11.015 (DOI)000301082000003 ()2-s2.0-84856212851 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20120402

Available from: 2012-01-05 Created: 2012-01-05 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Hydraulic response in flooded stream networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydraulic response in flooded stream networks
2015 (English)In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 51, no 1, 213-240 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Average water travel times through a stream network were determined as a function of stage (discharge) and stream network properties. Contrary to most previous studies on the topic, the present work allowed for streamflow velocities to vary spatially (for most of the analyses) as well as temporally. The results show that different stream network mechanisms and properties interact in a complex and stage-dependent manner, implying that the relative importance of the different hydraulic properties varies in space and over time. Theoretical reasoning, based on the central temporal moments derived from the kinematic-diffusive wave equation in a semi-2-D formulation including the effects of flooded cross sections, shows that the hydraulic properties in contrast to the geomorphological properties will become increasingly important as the discharge increases, stressing the importance of accurately describing the hydraulic mechanisms within stream networks. Using the physically based, stage-dependent response function as a parameterization basis for the streamflow routing routine (a linear reservoir) of a hydrological model, discharge predictions were shown to improve in two Swedish catchments, compared with a conventional, statistically based parameterization scheme. Predictions improved for a wide range of modeled scenarios, for the entire discharge series as well as for peak flow conditions. The foremost novelty of the study lies in that the physically based response function for a streamflow routing routine has successfully been determined independent of calibration, i.e., entirely through process-based hydraulic stream network modeling.

Keyword
stage-dependency, physically based parameterization, river routing, stream network, geomorphologic dispersion, hydraulics
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-162977 (URN)10.1002/2014WR016279 (DOI)000349889800013 ()2-s2.0-84923262181 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150331

Available from: 2015-03-31 Created: 2015-03-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. Change in streamflow response in unregulated catchments in Sweden over the last century
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Change in streamflow response in unregulated catchments in Sweden over the last century
2016 (English)In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A Fourier spectral analysis of 55-110 years of daily discharge time series in 79 unregulated catchments in Sweden reveals that the discharge power spectrum slope in most of the studied catchments has gradually steepened over time. This statistically significant drift in the periodicity of dominant hydrologic response processes can be attributed to a change in either climatic forcing factors or anthropogenic effects on the land surface, e.g., land-use changes. For those locations for which historical meteorological observations are available (the 41 southernmost catchments), the results of our analyses of changes in precipitation power spectra indicate that local land-use changes within the catchments may affect discharge power spectra more significantly than precipitation pattern changes (resulting from climate change).

By using 1D distributed hydraulic routing, we quantitatively analyze how travel time distributions within stream networks can vary because of anthropogenic impacts, such as changes in stream network spatial coordinates (these stream networks are derived from three maps: two from the present and one from the 1880s), river width modifications, stream channel excavation, and the elimination of thresholds in stream bottom topography that cause exceedingly low local bottom slopes.

The findings that the discharge power spectrum may change significantly over time, implies that conventional, statistically-based parameterization of hydrological models that rely on assumptions of stationarity may be less suited than more physically based parameterization alternatives. This essential information must be considered when performing tasks that involve (peak) flow predictions, such as those for dimensioning and flood risk management purposes.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing, 2016
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172935 (URN)10.1002/2015WR018116 (DOI)2-s2.0-84980327282 (Scopus ID)
External cooperation:
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20160823

Available from: 2015-09-02 Created: 2015-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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