Structure and Phase Stability of CaC2 Polymorphs, Li2C2 and Lithium Intercalated Graphite: A Revisit with High Pressure Experiments and Metal Hydride–Graphite Reactions
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alkali (A) and alkaline earth (AE) metals can form carbides and intercalated graphites with carbon. The carbides mostly represent acetylides which are salt-like compounds composed of C22− dumbbell anions and metal cations. Both the acetylide carbides and intercalated graphites are technologically important. Superconductivity has been observed in several intercalated graphites such as KC8 and CaC6. Li intercalated graphites are a major ingredient in Li ion batteries. CaC2 is an important commodity for producing acetylene and the fertilizer CaCN2.
In spite of the extensive research on A–C and AE–C compounds, phase diagrams are largely unknown. The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of both carbides and intercalalated graphites are discussed controversially. Recent computational studies indicated that well-known carbides, like CaC2 and BaC2, are thermodynamically unstable. Additionally, computational studies predicted that acetylide carbides will generally form novel polymeric carbides (polycarbides) at high pressures. This thesis is intended to check the validity of theoretical predictions and to shed light on the complicated phase diagrams of the Li–C and the Ca–C systems.
The Li–C and the Ca–C systems were investigated using well-controllable metal hydride–graphite reactions. Concerning the Li–C system, relative stabilities of the metastable lithium graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GICs) of stages I, IIa, IIb, III, IV and Id were studied close to the competing formation of the thermodynamically stable Li2C2. The stage IIa showed distinguished thermal stability. The phase Id showed thermodynamic stability and hence, was included in the Li–C phase diagram. In the Ca–C system, results from CaH2–graphite reactions indicate compositional variations between polymorphs I, II and III. The formation of CaC2 I was favored only at 1100 ◦C or higher temperature and with excess calcium, which speculates phase I as carbon deficient CaC2−δ .
To explore the potential existence of polycarbides, the acetylide carbides Li2C2 and CaC2 were investigated under various pressure and temperature conditions, employing diamond anvil cells for in situ studies and multi anvil techniques for large volume synthesis. The products were characterized by a combination of diffraction and spectroscopy techniques. For both Li2C2 and CaC2, a pressure induced structural transformation was observed at relatively low pressures (10–15 GPa), which was followed by an irreversible amorphization at higher pressures (25–30 GPa). For Li2C2 the structure of the high pressure phase prior to amorphization could be elucidated. The ground state with an antifluorite Immm structure (coordination number (CN) for C22− dumbbells = 8) transforms to a phase with an anticotunnite Pnma structure (CN for C22− dumbbells = 9). Polycarbides, as predicted from theory, could not be obtained.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University , 2015. , 80 p.
acetylide carbides, high pressure, Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement
Research subject Materials Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-120109ISBN: 978-91-7649-247-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-120109DiVA: diva2:850311
2015-10-09, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Guloy, Arnold, Professor
Häussermann, Ulrich, ProfessorSvensson, Gunnar, Professor
FunderSwedish Research Council, 2012-2956
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript.2015-09-172015-09-012016-07-06Bibliographically approved
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