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Chemicals in textiles: A potential source for human exposure and environmental pollution
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The wide use of chemicals in textile production is common knowledge, whilst very little has been done to disclose the potentially harmful compounds hiding in our closet. The initial part of this work focused on explorative screening of textile materials in common clothing. Non-targeted analysis of a set of sixty garments revealed the presence of thousands of compounds, among which over a hundred were tentatively identified. Depending on the frequency of occurrence in textile, skin penetrating properties and toxicological data, candidate compounds were selected for confirmation. Analytical methods were developed for their identification and quantification, with focus set on four groups of compounds: quinolines, benzothiazoles, benzotriazoles and aromatic amines. The analytical methods are based on ultrasonic extraction, followed by solid phase clean-up, combined with GC/MS or LC/MS/MS analysis. Concentrations of many target analytes were notably higher in polyester samples compared to garments made from cotton and blended material. The release during washing was investigated for two of the compounds groups, quinolines and benzothiazoles. The decreased concentrations in the garments suggest that laundry is a source of emission of these chemicals into household wastewater, and possibly further into the aquatic environment. Due to the slow decrease of the concentration in the garments when washed, substantial amounts of the compounds will remain in the textiles for a long time, with the possibility of exposure to the skin of potential harmful compounds as a result.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University , 2015. , 53 p.
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-120010ISBN: 978-91-7649-225-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-120010DiVA: diva2:850089
Public defence
2015-10-16, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-09-24 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Non-target screening and confirmation of chemicals in clothing textiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-target screening and confirmation of chemicals in clothing textiles
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-119615 (URN)
Available from: 2015-08-18 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved
2. Quinolines in clothing textiles-a source of human exposure and wastewater pollution?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quinolines in clothing textiles-a source of human exposure and wastewater pollution?
2014 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 406, no 12, 2747-2756 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A production process in which the use of various types of chemicals seems to be ubiquitous makes the textile industry a growing problem regarding both public health as well as the environment. Among several substances used at each stage, the present study focuses on the quinolines, a class of compounds involved in the manufacture of dyes, some of which are skin irritants and/or classified as probable human carcinogens. A method was developed for the determination of quinoline derivatives in textile materials comprising ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction, solid phase extraction cleanup, and final analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quinoline and ten quinoline derivatives were determined in 31 textile samples. The clothing samples, diverse in color, material, brand, country of manufacture, and price, and intended for a broad market, were purchased from different shops in Stockholm, Sweden. Quinoline, a possible human carcinogen, was found to be the most abundant compound present in almost all of the samples investigated, reaching a level of 1.9 mg in a single garment, and it was found that quinoline and its derivatives were mainly correlated to polyester material. This study points out the importance of screening textiles with nontarget analysis to investigate the presence of chemicals in an unbiased manner. Focus should be primarily on clothing worn close to the body.

Keyword
Quinoline, Clothing, Textiles, Garment, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-104126 (URN)10.1007/s00216-014-7688-9 (DOI)000334431300003 ()
Note

AuthorCount:3;

Available from: 2014-06-03 Created: 2014-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles - a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles - a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure
2015 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 8, 5842-5849 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from “organic cotton” equipped with the “Nordic Ecolabel” (“Svanenmärkt”). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

Keyword
HPLC-MS/MS, Benzothiazoles, Benzotriazoles, Clothing, Textiles, Garments
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-119612 (URN)10.1007/s11356-014-3691-0 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-08-18 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles
2016 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 3, 2537-2548 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 mu g/g (median 0.44 mu g/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 mu g/g (median 0.21 mu g/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

Keyword
Benzothiazoles, Benzotriazoles, Quinolines, Clothing, Textiles, Garments
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126872 (URN)10.1007/s11356-015-5405-7 (DOI)000368376800053 ()26429136 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2016-02-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
5. Aromatic amines in textiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aromatic amines in textiles
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-120009 (URN)
Available from: 2015-08-31 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved

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