Deposition temperature induced conduction band changes in zinc tin oxide buffer layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
2016 (English)In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 144, 684-690 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ALD-deposited Zn1-xSnxOy buffer layers were fabricated and the solar cell properties were investigated for varying ALD deposition temperatures in the range from 90 °C up to 180 °C. It was found that a process window exists between 105 °C and 135 °C, where high solar cell efficiency can be achieved. At lower ALD deposition temperatures the solar cell performance was mainly limited by low fill factor and at higher temperatures by low open circuit voltage. Numerical simulations and electrical characterization were used to relate the changes in solar cell performance as a function of ALD deposition temperature to changes in the conduction band energy level of the Zn1-xSnxOy buffer layer. The Zn1-xSnxOy films contain small ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites (~10 nm), resulting in quantum confinement effects influencing the optical band gap of the buffer layer. The ALD deposition temperature affects the size of these crystallites and it is concluded that most of the changes in the band gap occur in the conduction band level.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 144, 684-690 p.
Zinc tin oxide (ZTO); Atomic layer deposition (ALD); Buffer layer; Thin film photovoltaics; CIGS; Conduction band line-up;
Engineering and Technology Environmental Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260879DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.09.048ISI: 000366223900087OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-260879DiVA: diva2:848649
FunderSwedish Energy Agency, 2012-004591VINNOVA, 2013-02199StandUp