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Frequency control: Pay for performance
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
2015 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The frequency control in the Nordic grid is to a large extent delivered by hydropower plants. The hydropower plants deliver frequency control of varying quality, meaning that a remuneration method based on more than just the static gain of the power plant is called for. This thesis has examined how three remuneration methods based on the hydropower plant output and the grid frequency deviation affects the grid stability.

Using frequency data, the remunerated work along with the bandwidth and phase-crossover frequency was plotted and compared for varying governor settings.

The results show that all three remuneration methods examined need constructive technical specifications (for example based on the frequency response) to not decrease the grid stability. The first remuneration method, where the power plant is remunerated for being on the right side of the power set point value as the grid frequency deviates, gave incentives for increased bandwidth, but no particular incentives regarding the phase-crossover frequency. The second remuneration method, where the power plant is remunerated for how well it matches the output power from a plant with no dynamics using a proportional controller, gave incentives for moderately high bandwidth and phase-crossover frequency. The third remuneration method, which remunerates how well the plant power output matches the load disturbance that gave rise to the grid frequency deviation, needs to be investigated further, but the initial analysis show that it did neither give incentives for increased bandwidth nor phase-crossover frequency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 53 p.
UPTEC ES, ISSN 1650-8300 ; 15036
Keyword [en]
Frequency control, Hydropower, Remuneration, Governor settings
National Category
Energy Systems Control Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259434OAI: diva2:846688
External cooperation
Vattenfall R&D
Educational program
Master Programme in Energy Systems Engineering
Available from: 2015-08-18 Created: 2015-08-03 Last updated: 2015-08-18Bibliographically approved

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