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How memory of the past, a predictable present and expectations of the future underpin adaptation to the sound environment
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. (Miljöpsykologi)
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

By using auditory distraction as a tool, the main focus of the present thesis is to investigate the role of memory systems in human adaptation processes towards changes in the built environment. Report I and Report II focus on the question of whether memory for regularities in the auditory environment is used to form predictions and expectations of future sound events, and if violations of these expectations capture attention. Collectively the results indicate that once a stable neural model of the sound environment is created, violations of the formed expectations can capture attention. Furthermore, the magnitude of attentional capture is a function of the pitch difference between the expected tone and the presented tone.

The second part of the thesis is concerned with, (a) the nature (i.e. the specificity) of the neural model formed in an auditory environment and, (b) whether complex cognition in terms of working memory capacity modulates habituation rate. The results in Report III show that the disruptive effect of the deviation effect diminishes with the number of exposures over time, and also as a function of working memory capacity. The aim of Report IV was to investigate the nature (and specificity) of the neural model formed in an auditory environment. If the neural model is fashioned around a specific stimulus then an observable increase of response latency should occur in conjunction with the deviant change. The results in Experiment 1 in Report IV, however, show that the habituation rate remained the same throughout the experiment. To further test the specificity of the neural model the modalityof the deviant event was switched (from auditory to visual and vice versa) in Experiment 3 in Report IV. The collective findings indicate that the formed neural model may be of a more general nature than previously suggested. The aim of Experiment 2 in Report IV was to investigate what properties of the sound environment underpin habituation rate, more specifically if predictability of a deviant trial facilitates the habituation process. The finding that the habituation rate was similar whether there was a fixed temporal interval between the deviant trials or a random interval suggests that the amount of occurrences (i.e. number of deviant trials) determines habituation rate, not the predictability of a deviant trial.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling undersöker vilken roll minnessystem har i anpassningen till förändringar i den byggda miljön. Delrapport I och Delrapport II fokuserar på frågan om regelbundenheter i den auditiva miljön används för att skapa förväntningar och prediktioner gällande framtida händelser, och vidare, om avvikelser från dessa förväntningar fångar uppmärksamheten. Sammantaget tyder resultaten på att uppmärksamheten fångas om nämnda förväntningar inte infrias. Vidare visar resultaten att magnituden av den fångade uppmärksamheten är en funktion av skillnaden mellan den förväntade tonen och den presenterade tonen.

Den andra delen av avhandlingen undersöker (a) karaktären (dvs. specificiteten) av den neurala modellen och (b) om komplex kognition i termer av arbetsminneskapacitet påverkar habituation. Resultaten i Delrapport III visar att den störande effekten av den avvikande tonen minskar dels med antalet exponeringar och dels som en funktion av arbetsminneskapacitet. Syftet med Delrapport IV var att undersöka hur specifik den skapade neurala modellen är. Resultaten i Experiment 1 i Delrapport IV visar att habituationstakten förblev densamma under hela experimentet även om den avvikande tonen byttes ut under experimentets gång. Detta tillsammans med resultaten i Experiment 3 i Delrapport IV, där habituation kunde påvisas även om modaliteten av den avvikande händelsen byttes från auditiv till visuell och vice versa, indikerar att den neurala modellen är av en mer allmän karaktär än vad man tidigare trott. Syftet med Experiment 2 i Delrapport IV var att undersöka vilka egenskaper i ljudmiljön som påverkar habituationstakten. Upptäckten att takten var likvärdig oavsett om det fanns ett fast eller ett slumpmässigt intervall mellan de avvikande tonerna tyder på att det är mängden förekomster (dvs. antalet avvikande toner), snarare än predicerbarhet, som avgör habituationstakten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2015. , 28 p.
Series
Studies in the Research Profile Built Environment. Doctoral thesis, 1
Keyword [en]
Memory, Expectations, Adaptation, Habituation, Predictions, Attentional capture, Auditory distraction
Keyword [sv]
Minne, förväntningar, anpassning, habituation, prediktioner, fångad uppmärksamhet, auditiv distraktion
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20082ISBN: 978-91-88145-00-0 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88145-01-7 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-20082DiVA: diva2:845212
Public defence
2015-09-30, Biblioteket, sal 23:213, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, Gävle, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-09-08 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2015-09-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Expectations Modulate the Magnitude of Attentional Capture by Auditory Events
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expectations Modulate the Magnitude of Attentional Capture by Auditory Events
2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 11, e48569- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

What determines the magnitude of attentional capture by deviant sound events? We combined the cross-modal oddball distraction paradigm with sequence learning to address this question. Participants responded to visual targets, each preceded by tones that formed a repetitive cross-trial standard sequence. In Experiment 1, with the standard tone sequence …-660-440-660-880-… Hz, either the 440 Hz or the 880 Hz standard was occasionally replaced by one of two deviant tones (220 Hz and 1100 Hz), that either differed slightly (by 220 Hz) or markedly (by 660 Hz) from the replaced standard. In Experiment 2, with the standard tone sequence …-220-660-440-660-880-660-1100-… Hz, the 440 Hz and the 880 Hz standard was occasionally replaced by either a 220 Hz or a 1100 Hz pattern deviant. In both experiments, a high-pitch deviant was more captivating when it replaced a low-pitch standard, and a low-pitch deviant was more captivating when it replaced a high-pitch standard. These results indicate that the magnitude of attentional capture by deviant sound events depends on the discrepancy between the deviant event and the expected event, not on perceived local change.

Keyword
attentional capture, auditory distraction, expectancy violation, novelty, oddball paradigm
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-13116 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0048569 (DOI)000311935800076 ()PMC3492454 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84868712214 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2012-09-28 Created: 2012-09-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. What we expect is not always what we get: Evidence for both the direction-of-change and the specific-stimulus hypotheses of auditory attentional capture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What we expect is not always what we get: Evidence for both the direction-of-change and the specific-stimulus hypotheses of auditory attentional capture
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, e111997- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Participants were requested to respond to a sequence of visual targets while listening to a well-known lullaby. One of the notes in the lullaby was occasionally exchanged with a pattern deviant. Experiment 1 found that deviants capture attention as a function of the pitch difference between the deviant and the replaced/expected tone. However, when the pitch difference between the expected tone and the deviant tone is held constant, a violation to the direction-of-pitch change across tones can also capture attention (Experiment 2). Moreover, in more complex auditory environments, wherein it is difficult to build a coherent neural model of the sound environment from which expectations are formed, deviations can capture attention but it appears to matter less whether this is a violation from a specific stimulus or a violation of the current direction-of-change (Experiment 3). The results support the expectation violation account of auditory distraction and suggest that there are at least two different expectations that can be violated: One appears to be bound to a specific stimulus and the other would seem to be bound to a more global cross-stimulus rule such as the direction-of-change based on a sequence of preceding sound events. Factors like base-rate probability of tones within the sound environment might become the driving mechanism of attentional capture - rather than violated expectations - in complex sound environments.

Keyword
specific-stimulus hypotheses, auditory attentional capture, pitch differences
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17675 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0111997 (DOI)000347709300027 ()25393298 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84911861505 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-2042
Available from: 2014-10-12 Created: 2014-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Working memory capacity modulates habituation rate: Evidence from a cross-modal auditory distraction paradigm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Working memory capacity modulates habituation rate: Evidence from a cross-modal auditory distraction paradigm
2012 (English)In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 19, no 2, 245-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Habituation of the orienting response is a pivotal part of selective attention, and previous research has related working memory capacity (WMC) to attention control. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in WMC contribute to habituation rate. The participants categorized visual targets across six blocks of trials. Each target was preceded either by a standard sound or, on rare trials, by a deviant. The magnitude of the deviation effect (i.e., prolonged response time when the deviant was presented) was relatively large in the beginning but attenuated toward the end. There was no relationship between WMC and the deviation effect at the beginning, but there was at the end, and greater WMC was associated with greater habituation. These results indicate that high memory ability increases habituation rate, and they support theories proposing a role for cognitive control in habituation and in some forms of auditory distraction.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-11043 (URN)10.3758/s13423-011-0203-9 (DOI)000303886200015 ()2-s2.0-84858410935 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-12-13 Created: 2011-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Habituation to distraction from deviant sound: does predictability matter?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Habituation to distraction from deviant sound: does predictability matter?
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20090 (URN)
Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-12 Last updated: 2015-10-05Bibliographically approved

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