Monogenic Traits Associated with Structural Variants in Chicken and Horse: Allelic and Phenotypic Diversity of Visually Appealing Traits
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Domestic animals have rich phenotypic diversity that can be explored to advance our understanding of the relationship between molecular genetics and phenotypic variation. Since the advent of second generation sequencing, it has become easier to identify structural variants and associate them with phenotypic outcomes. This thesis details studies on three such variants associated with monogenic traits.
The first studies on Rose-comb in the chicken were published over a century ago, seminally describing Mendelian inheritance and epistatic interaction in animals. Homozygosity for the otherwise dominant Rose-comb allele was later associated with reduced rooster fertility. We show that a 7.38 Mb inversion is causal for Rose-comb, and that two alleles exist for Rose-comb, R1 and R2. A novel genomic context for the gene MNR2 is causative for the comb phenotype, and the bisection of the gene CCDC108 is associated with fertility issues. The recombined R2 allele has intact CCDC108, and normal fertility.
The dominant phenotype Greying with Age in horses was previously associated with an intronic duplication in STX17. By utilising second generation sequencing we have examined the genomic region surrounding the duplication in detail, and excluded all other discovered variants as causative for Grey.
Dun is the ancestral coat colour of equids, where the individual is mostly pale in colour, but carries intensely pigmented primitive markings, most notably a dorsal stripe. Dun is a dominant trait, and yet most domestic horses are non-dun in colour and intensely pigmented. We show that Dun colour is established by radially asymmetric expression of the transcription factor TBX3 in hair follicles. This results in a microscopic spotting phenotype on the level of the individual hair, giving the impression of pigment dilution. Non-dun colour is caused by two different alleles, non-dun1 and non-dun2, both of which disrupt the TBX3-mediated regulation of pigmentation. Non-dun1 is associated with a SNP variant 5 kb downstream of TBX3, and non-dun2 with a 1.6 kb deletion that overlaps the non-dun1 SNP. Homozygotes for non-dun2 show a more intensely pigmented appearance than horses with one or two non-dun1 alleles. We have also shown by genotyping of ancient DNA that non-dun1 predates domestication.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 59 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1124
Structural variation, Pigmentation, Domestication, Equids, MNR2, CCDC108, STX17, TBX3, Grey, Dun, non-dun, Rose-comb, Chicken, Genetic mapping, Phenotyping
Genetics Genetics and Breeding
Research subject Molecular Genetics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259621ISBN: 978-91-554-9295-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-259621DiVA: diva2:845131
2015-09-25, room B42, at the BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Steingrímsson, Eiríkur, Professor
Andersson, LeifLindgren, GabriellaLindblad-Toh, Kerstin
List of papers