Characterization of a Gene Expression Signature in Normal Rat Prostate Tissue Induced by the Presence of a Tumor Elsewhere in the Organ
2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, e0130076Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Implantation of rat prostate cancer cells into the normal rat prostate results in tumor-stimulating changes in the tumor-bearing organ, for example growth of the vasculature, an altered extracellular matrix, and influx of inflammatory cells. To investigate this response further, we compared prostate morphology and the gene expression profile of tumor-bearing normal rat prostate tissue (termed tumor-instructed/indicating normal tissue (TINT)) with that of prostate tissue from controls. Dunning rat AT-1 prostate cancer cells were injected into rat prostate and tumors were established after 10 days. As controls we used intact animals, animals injected with heat-killed AT-1 cells or cell culture medium. None of the controls showed morphological TINT-changes. A rat Illumina whole-genome expression array was used to analyze gene expression in AT-1 tumors, TINT, and in medium injected prostate tissue. We identified 423 upregulated genes and 38 downregulated genes (p<0.05, >= 2-fold change) in TINT relative to controls. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis verified key TINT-changes, and they were not detected in controls. Expression of some genes was changed in a manner similar to that in the tumor, whereas other changes were exclusive to TINT. Ontological analysis using GeneGo software showed that the TINT gene expression profile was coupled to processes such as inflammation, immune response, and wounding. Many of the genes whose expression is altered in TINT have well-established roles in tumor biology, and the present findings indicate that they may also function by adapting the surrounding tumor-bearing organ to the needs of the tumor. Even though a minor tumor cell contamination in TINT samples cannot be ruled out, our data suggest that there are tumor-induced changes in gene expression in the normal tumor-bearing organ which can probably not be explained by tumor cell contamination. It is important to validate these changes further, as they could hypothetically serve as novel diagnostic and prognostic markers of prostate cancer.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 10, no 6, e0130076
Cancer and Oncology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106329DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130076ISI: 000356329900133PubMedID: 26076453OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-106329DiVA: diva2:842004