Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE credits
The main purpose of this study to understand to what extent Afghan IE teachers’ use and implement those strategies in their teaching compare to Language in primary school. The study took place in 45 schools, which three kinds of data collection tools were used. First questionnaire for 99 male and female teachers in 45 schools of Ghor province, to explore teachers views about the usage of strategies in IE and Language. Second structure observation to investigate or teachers do what they answered in questionnaire. Third analysis of IE and Language textbooks according Bloom’s learning taxonomy in grade four to understand the IE textbooks activities and Language textbooks activities in grade four.
The result of questionnaire illustrate that most of teachers of IE used the teaching and learning strategies, reading comprehension in their teaching. While the result of observation has shown that, teachers of both IE and Language do not implemented what they answered in questionnaire, they still fallow traditional teaching strategies in teaching processes. In addition analysis of IE textbooks and Language textbooks according to Bloom’s taxonomy indicated that Language textbooks included more activities than IE textbooks. Finally IE textbooks emphasized on memorization of some textbooks for active learning. Textbooks of both IE and Language motivate teachers to implement those activities in their teaching to learning become useful and effective for students.
To conclude one can say that teachers views expressed in questionnaire are more similar in some aspects of teaching IE and language. Interestingly the teachers who teach IE and language show similar views while as general trend views of teachers who teach both differ is many cases form the other two groups of teachers. This group, although smaller in number in this study, as this group teach both subjects and more likely their views must be given more weight, because they can be in better position to judge about similarities and differences of teaching IE and Language. There were many contradictory points as well. For example that IE teachers see learning by doing as the highly marked learning activity (see table 14, 56 %) of IE, while as reported in tables 7 and 13, memorization seen as main thing for IE.
The findings for questionnaire and observation also contradict each other and mean that teacher say something but practice something else.
Finally the findings form Textbook analysis show yet another picture of the issue. There are clear differences in instructions from teaching in language and in IE textbooks. Instructions in IE textbook emphasize on memorization and recalling while, of language on understanding. Consequently, as the teachers follow the instructions of text books, more likely their teaching practices are similar to textbooks. So one can say that their teaching practices observed in classrooms reflect what is in the textbooks. However their views on some issue, when found different can be also an indication that teachers know or have heard about different issues.