This paper is a systematic review. The overall objective is to present and discuss perspectives on compensation in urban planning and research. The paper is based on an investigation that has three starting points. Firstly, it is Swedish experiences that are being presented in this paper. I want to report contemporary ideas of compensation in social planning from the development of comprehensive plans to building permits. Secondly, the paper focuses on planning processes, which result in detailed plans. Thirdly, the paper highlights compensation in relation to building projects in areas with cultural heritage.
The target group for this survey is developers, constructors, consulting firms, public organizations and academic institutions. They produce documents on compensation. Planning tools, professional practice and research & development in this field of knowledge are dominated by ecological compensation. However, methods to identify and describe, analyze, measure and reconstruct environmental functions and values in the landscape cannot be transferred to cultural compensation. Nature and heritage represent in this perspective two very different forms of knowledge with its own scientific agenda. They have developed separately, mainly as part of science on one hand and on the other hand humanities.
Compensatory actions in urban planning are in the center of research interest in this review. There are four key actors producing documents that are used in planning processes; government agencies, municipalities, consulting firms and universities. There is a growing body of knowledge on compensation in planning processes when it comes to ecological compensation or environmental compensation. Cultural compensation has not been studied on the same level. This stands out as an important result of the review.
The investigation is summarized in eleven conc1usions in terms of (a) advantages and opportunities for the preservation of cultural values by compensation, (b) risks and disadvantages when heritage becomes an arena with interchangeable values, and (c) the challenges for the development of a professional practice in order to compensate cultural values that get damaged by projects. There is a need for discussion, planning tools and research for rethinking cultural values in planning processes.
Fjällbacka: Kulturlandskapet , 2015. 48-104 p.
kompensationsåtgärder vid exploateringar i kultur- och naturmiljöer 1-2 december 2014