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EEG enhancement for EEG source localization in brain-machine speller
Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
2013 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesisAlternative title
EEG enhancement for EEG source localization in brain-machine speller (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system to communicate with external world through the brain activity. The brain activity is measured by Electro-Encephalography (EEG) and then processed by a BCI system. EEG source reconstruction could be a way to improve the accuracy of EEG classification in EEGbased brain–computer interface (BCI). In this thesis BCI methods were applied on derived sources which by their EEG enhancement it became possible to obtain a more accurate EEG detection and brought a new application to BCI technology that are recognition of writing letters imagery from brain waves. The BCI system enables people to write and type letters by their brain activity (EEG). To this end, first part of the thesis is dedicated to EEG source reconstruction techniques to select the most optimal EEG channels for task classification purposes. Due to this reason the changes in EEG signal power from rest state to motor imagery task was used, to find the location of an active single equivalent dipole. Implementing an inverse problem solution on the power changes by Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP) method generated a scalp map where its fitting showed the localization of EEG electrodes. Having the optimized locations the secondary objective was to choose the most optimal EEG features and rhythm for an efficient classification. This became possible by feature ranking, 1- Nearest Neighbor leave-one-out. The feature vectors were computed by applying the combined methods of multitaper method, Pwelch. The features were classified by several methods of Normal densities based quadratic classifier (qdc), k-nearest neighbor classifier (knn), Mixture of Gaussians classification and Train neural network classifier using back-propagation. Results show that the selected features and classifiers are able to recognize the imagination of writing alphabet with the high accuracy.

Abstract [sv]

BCI controls external devices and interacts with the environment by brain signals. Measured EEG signals over the motor cortex exhibit changes in power related to the movements or imaginations which are executed in motor tasks [1]. These changes declare increase or decrease of power in the alpha (8Hz-13Hz), and beta (13Hz-28Hz) frequency bands from resting state to motor imagery task that known as event related synchronization (in case of power increasing) and desynchronization (in case of power decreasing) [2]. The necessity to communicate with the external world for locked-in state (LIS) patients (a paralyzed patient who only communicates with eyes), made doctors and engineers motivated to develop a BCI technology for typing letters through brain commands. Many researches have been done around this area to ascertain the dream of typing for handicapped. In the brain some regions of the cerebral cortex (motor cortex) are involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements. Electroencephalography (EEG) signals are electrical potential generated by the nerve cells in the cerebral cortex. In order to execute motoric tasks, the EEG signals are appeared over the motor cortex [1]. The measured brain response to a stimulus is called eventrelated potential (ERP). P300-event related potential (ERP) is an evoked neuron response to an external auditory or visual stimulus that is detectable in scalp-recorded EEG (The P300 is evoked potential which occurs across the parieto-central on the skull 300 ms after applying the stimulus). Farwell and Donchin have proven in a P300-based BCI speller [3] that P300 response is a reliable signal for controlling a BCI system. They described the P300 speller, in which alphanumeric characters are represented in a matrix grid of six-by-six matrix. The user should focus on one of the 36 character cells while each row and column of the grid is intensified randomly and sequentially. The P300, observed in EEG signals, is created by the intersection of the target row and column which causes detection of the target stimuli with a probability of 1/6 (in case of high accuracy of flashing operation). Also when the target stimulus is rarely presented in the random sequence of stimuli causes a neural reaction to unpredictable but recognizable event and a P300 response is evoked [3]. Generally when the subject is involved with the task to recognize the targets, the P300 wave happens and the signal amplitude varies with the unlikelihood of the targets. Its dormancy changes with the difficulty of recognizing the target stimulus from the standard stimuli [3].The attended character of the matrix can be extracted by proper feature extraction and classification of P300. A plenty of procedures for feature extraction and classification have been applied to improve the performance of originally reported speller [3], such as stepwise linear discriminate analysis (SWLDA) [4, 5], wavelets [1], support vector machines [6, 7, 8] and matched filtering [9]. Till now, BCI-related P300 research has mostly considered on signals from standard P300 scalp locations. While in [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16] it has been proven that the use of additional locations, especially posterior sites, may improve classification accuracy, but it has not been addressed to particular offline and online studies. Recently, auditory version improvement of the visual P300 speller allows locked in patients who have problem in the visual system to use the P300 speller system by relating two numbers to each letter which indicate the row and column of letter position [17]. Now a new technology is needed which can substitute a keyboard with no alphabet menu. The technology will be handy for blind people and useful for healthy persons who need to work hands free with their computer or mobile. The aim of this thesis is to improve EEG detection through source localization for a new BCI application to type with EEG signals without using alphabet menu.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 69 p.
Keyword [en]
Brain-Computer interface (BCI), Brain-machine speller, Electroencephalogram (EEG), source localization, source reconstruction
National Category
Nursing Computer Science Signal Processing
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-6016Local ID: diva2:833432
+98-9359576229Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2015-06-30Bibliographically approved

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