Open Data for Anomaly Detection in Maritime Surveillance
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesisAlternative title
Open Data for Anomaly Detection in Maritime Surveillance (Swedish)
Context: Maritime Surveillance (MS) has received increased attention from a civilian perspective in recent years. Anomaly detection (AD) is one of the many techniques available for improving the safety and security in the MS domain. Maritime authorities utilize various confidential data sources for monitoring the maritime activities; however, a paradigm shift on the Internet has created new sources of data for MS. These newly identified data sources, which provide publicly accessible data, are the open data sources. Taking advantage of the open data sources in addition to the traditional sources of data in the AD process will increase the accuracy of the MS systems. Objectives: The goal is to investigate the potential open data as a complementary resource for AD in the MS domain. To achieve this goal, the first step is to identify the applicable open data sources for AD. Then, a framework for AD based on the integration of open and closed data sources is proposed. Finally, according to the proposed framework, an AD system with the ability of using open data sources is developed and the accuracy of the system and the validity of its results are evaluated. Methods: In order to measure the system accuracy, an experiment is performed by means of a two stage random sampling on the vessel traffic data and the number of true/false positive and negative alarms in the system is verified. To evaluate the validity of the system results, the system is used for a period of time by the subject matter experts from the Swedish Coastguard. The experts check the detected anomalies against the available data at the Coastguard in order to obtain the number of true and false alarms. Results: The experimental outcomes indicate that the accuracy of the system is 99%. In addition, the Coastguard validation results show that among the evaluated anomalies, 64.47% are true alarms, 26.32% are false and 9.21% belong to the vessels that remain unchecked due to the lack of corresponding data in the Coastguard data sources. Conclusions: This thesis concludes that using open data as a complementary resource for detecting anomalous behavior in the MS domain is not only feasible but also will improve the efficiency of the surveillance systems by increasing the accuracy and covering some unseen aspects of maritime activities.
This thesis investigated the potential open data as a complementary resource for Anomaly Detection (AD) in the Maritime Surveillance (MS) domain. A framework for AD was proposed based on the usage of open data sources along with other traditional sources of data. According to the proposed AD framework and the algorithms for implementing the expert rules, the Open Data Anomaly Detection System (ODADS) was developed. To evaluate the accuracy of the system, an experiment on the vessel traffic data was conducted and an accuracy of 99% was obtained for the system. There was a false negative case in the system results that decreased the accuracy. It was due to incorrect AIS data in a special situation that was not possible to be handled by the detection rules in the scope of this thesis. The validity of the results was investigated by the subject matter experts from the Swedish Coastguard. The validation results showed that the majority of the ODADS evaluated anomalies were true alarms. Moreover, a potential information gap in the closed data sources was observed during the validation process. Despite the high number of true alarms, the number of false alarms was also considerable that was mainly because of the inaccurate open data. This thesis provided insights into the open data as a complement to the common data sources in the MS domain and is concluded that using open data will improve the efficiency of the surveillance systems by increasing the accuracy and covering some unseen aspects of maritime activities.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , 60 p.
open data, anomaly detection, maritime security, maritime domain awareness
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:bth-4807Local ID: oai:bth.se:arkivex2BD92C1DB26AA75FC1257AC4006D6CC1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-4807DiVA: diva2:832155
Johnson, Dr. HenricLavesson, Dr. Niklas