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Development of 1.3-μm GaAs-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are desirable as low-cost sources for optical metropolitan-area and access networks. In the development of 1.3-µm VCSELs, most attention today is given to monolithic GaAs-based solutions, although no established active material exists in this wavelength region. This thesis investigates the possibility of reaching the 1.3-µm telecom wavelength window using GaInNAs quantum wells (QWs) or 1.2-µm InGaAs QWs in conjunction with negative gain-cavity detuning in VCSELs. The work includes metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy and characterization of InGaAs and GaInNAs QWs, realization of 1.3-µm InGaAs VCSELs as well as elements of optimization and analysis of such lasers. The evaluation of GaInNAs and InGaAs QWs has been performed using a number of characterization methods such as photoluminescence (PL), high-resolution x-ray diffraction, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy as well as fabrication and evaluation of broad-area lasers (BALs).

Both performance and growth reproducibility of GaInNAs QWs are considered and could be improved by using high V/III ratios. Nontrivial relations between PL and laser performance are pointed out and the technologically important but problematic combination of AlGaAs and GaInNAs in the same epitaxial structure is studied. Parallel to the work on GaInNAs, the possibility of extending the wavelength of InGaAs QWs towards 1.3 µm has been investigated. Generally better luminescence efficiency and laser performance are obtained for InGaAs than for GaInNAs QWs, but the gain-peak wavelength for InGaAs QWs is presently limited to about 1.24 µm due to strain-induced degradation. In this work the InGaAs QW growth is optimized for long wavelength and high luminescence. It is demonstrated that multiple QW structures can be grown with strain similar to that of single QWs, which is interesting for VCSEL applications. Record BALs with two to five InGaAs/GaAs QWs have low threshold current densities,  70 A/cm2 per QW at 1.24 µm. The main advantage of InGaAs QWs compared to GaInNAs QWs is that they represent a better-known material system with less complex and more stable growth. However, InGaAs QWs > 1.2 µm are on the verge of strain relaxation, and the possible consequences for laser production and reliability have to be considered.

Using 1.2-µm InGaAs QWs, high-performance 1.3-µm VCSELs were achieved by negative gain-cavity detuning. Dynamic performance and surface reliefs to improve the single-mode operation have been investigated. The VCSELs have excellent high-temperature performance due to a smaller spectral distance between the gain-peak and the laser mode at elevated temperature. More specifically, a 1.27-µm single-mode device showed maximum output powers of 1.1 and 0.5 mW at 20 and 140ºC, which is state-of-the-art for GaAs-based long-wavelength VCSELs.

In all, two methods for 1.3-µm GaAs-based VCSELs, GaInNAs and InGaAs QWs, have been investigated. GaInNAs is a difficult material but is still promising and several companies have predicted a near-future market introduction. However, the growth of GaInNAs is both complex and sensitive to growth fluctuations. On the other hand, gain-cavity detuned InGaAs-QW VCSELs show state-of-the-art performance at 1260-1290 nm with straightforward growth and processing. The devices exhibit good static and dynamic performance, and preliminary reliability tests indicate that there is no intrinsic problem. Both approaches are promising for application in real-world optical networks and deserve further attention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , p. 65
Series
Trita-HMA, ISSN 1404-0379 ; 2005:1
Keywords [en]
Physics
Keywords [sv]
Fysik
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-263DiVA, id: diva2:8295
Public defence
2005-06-10, Sal C1, KTH-Elektrum, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101001Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2010-10-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Low-temperature growth of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells for 1.3-μm lasers using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-temperature growth of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells for 1.3-μm lasers using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy
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2001 (English)In: Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2001. IPRM. IEEE International Conference On, 2001, p. 563-566Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

GaInNAs/GaAs quantum-well (QW) lasers emitting at 1.3 μm were grown using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in the limit of very low growth rate and temperature. The material was characterized by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as well as by implementation in broad-area (BA) edge-emitting lasers. While the PL intensity was found to decrease by more than two orders of magnitude between 1175 and 1350 nm, the corresponding BA laser threshold current showed a much more modest increase. For a 1.28-μm laser the transparency current was 0.8 kA/cm2, the slope efficiency 0.24 W/A per facet and T0=100 K. Comparison between PL emission properties and BA laser performance revealed a complex relationship. A high PL intensity does not necessarily lead to low threshold-current lasers. In these cases, the FWHM seems to be the more relevant parameter for QW optimization

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5278 (URN)10.1109/ICIPRM.2001.929211 (DOI)0-7803-6700-6 (ISBN)
Conference
14 maj 2001 - 18 maj 2001, Nara , Japan
Note
QC 20100930Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2010-09-30Bibliographically approved
2. Optimization of MOVPE-grown GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells for 1.3-μm laser applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of MOVPE-grown GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells for 1.3-μm laser applications
2002 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The effects of high group-V precursor flows during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial growthof GaInNAs QWs are investigated. It is shown that photoluminescence line width, waferuniformity, and sensitivity to growth temperature can be improved using V/III ratios in excess of2000. Broad area GaInNAdGaAs SQW lasers with dimensions 100 x 820 pm2 grown under theseconditions have threshold current densities as low as 660 kA/cm2 at 1.26 pm emission wavelength.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5279 (URN)
Conference
Proc. 14th Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 12-16 May 2002
Note
QC 20101001Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2010-10-01Bibliographically approved
3. Morphological instability of GaInNAs quantum wells on Al-containing layers grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphological instability of GaInNAs quantum wells on Al-containing layers grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy
2003 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, no 15, p. 2431-2433Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The optical and structural integrity of metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum wells on AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) was reported. Photoluminescence and surface morphology were investigated for different numbers of DBR periods and different DBR-growth temperatures. It was found that decreasing the DBR-growth temperature lowers the surface concentration of Al and improves the GaInNAs quantum-well morphology.

Keywords
Atomic force microscopy, Photoluminescence, Secondary ion mass spectrometry, Semiconducting aluminum compounds, Semiconducting gallium arsenide, Semiconductor quantum wells, Vapor phase epitaxy
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5280 (URN)10.1063/1.1567810 (DOI)000182104900021 ()
Note
QC 20100923Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. Optimization of highly strained InGaAs quantum wells for 1.3-μm vertical-cavity lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of highly strained InGaAs quantum wells for 1.3-μm vertical-cavity lasers
2003 (English)In: Proc. 10th European Workshop on Metalorganic Vapour Phase Epitaxy, Lecce, Italy, 8-11 June 2003, 2003, p. 247-250Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5281 (URN)
Note
QC 20101001Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2010-10-01Bibliographically approved
5. Highly strained InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum-wells for laser applications in the 1200-1300-nm wavelength regime
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly strained InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum-wells for laser applications in the 1200-1300-nm wavelength regime
2005 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 071104-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy growth optimization and properties of highly strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well (QW) structures with emission wavelength beyond 1200 nm. It is observed that a sufficiently high V/III ratio in combination with low growth temperature is critical for preserved layer integrity when increasing the strain. Multiple QWs with up to five wells are realized without any degradation in photoluminescence intensity or broad-area laser performance at an emission wavelength of 1240 nm with threshold current density below 70 A/cm(2) per well.

Keywords
surface-emitting lasers, misfit dislocations, growth, thickness, emission
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5282 (URN)10.1063/1.2010615 (DOI)000231246000004 ()2-s2.0-24144445874 (Scopus ID)
Note

Uppdaterad från submitted til published: 20101001. QC 20101001

Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
6. Low-threshold, high-temperature operation of 1.2 mu m InGaAs vertical cavity lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-threshold, high-temperature operation of 1.2 mu m InGaAs vertical cavity lasers
Show others...
2001 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 37, no 15, p. 957-958Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The growth and characterisation of high performance InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well vertical cavity lasers with an emission wavelength of 1215 nm is reported. Continuous wave operation is demonstrated up to 105°C with a threshold current below 1 mA for T < 80°C. For a 2.5 μm device the room temperature threshold current, output power and slope efficiency is 0.6 mA, 0.6 mW and 0.2 W/A, respectively.

Keywords
Continuous wave lasers, Current density, Fiber optics, High temperature operations, Metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy, Mirrors, Optical communication, Photoluminescence, Reflection, Semiconducting indium gallium arsenide, Semiconductor quantum wells, Thermodynamic stability
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5283 (URN)10.1049/el:20010644 (DOI)000170317700020 ()
Note
QC 20100921Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
7. 1260 nm InGaAs vertical-cavity lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>1260 nm InGaAs vertical-cavity lasers
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2002 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 38, no 13, p. 635-636Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 The fabrication and performance of highly strained double-quantum well InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity lasers with record-long emission wavelength of 1260 nm at room temperature is reported. Depending on device diameter, the minimum threshold current is in the low mA-regime while the maximum output power exceeds 1 mW. The devices work continuous-wave over a wide temperature range of at least 10-120degrees C.

Keywords
Continuous wave lasers; Electric currents; Integrated circuit layout; Laser tuning; Light emission; Metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy; Semiconducting indium gallium arsenide
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5284 (URN)10.1049/el:20020431 (DOI)000176632500015 ()
Note

QC 20100817

Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
8. High-performance 1.3-μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-performance 1.3-μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
Show others...
2003 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 39, no 15, p. 1128-1129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A report is presented on high-performance InGaAs/GaAs double quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with record long emission wavelengths up to 1300 nm. Due to a large gain-cavity detuning these VCSELs show excellent temperature performance with very stable threshold current and output power characteristics. For 1.27 mum singlemode devices the threshold current is found to decrease from 2 to 1 mA between 10 and 90degreesC, while the peak output power only drops from 1 to 0.6 mW Large-area 1300 nm VCSELs show multimode output power close to 3 mW.

Keywords
Electric currents; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting gallium arsenide; Semiconducting indium compounds; Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL)
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8620 (URN)10.1049/el:20030733 (DOI)000184642900023 ()
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
9. Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with temperature-tolerant modulation characteristics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with temperature-tolerant modulation characteristics
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 21, p. 211109-1-211109-3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dynamic performance of InGaAs/GaAs 1.27 &mu; m single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is presented. In order to reach such a long wavelength, the devices utilize highly strained double-quantum wells and a large detuning between the material gain peak and cavity resonance. It is found that the large detuning improves the temperature stability of both static and modulation characteristics. A resonance frequency of 7.8-9.5 GHz and optical power of 0.30 mW in fiber was maintained throughout the investigated temperature range of 20-90 &DEG; C. The intrinsic response of the device suggests that long-wavelength InGaAs/GaAs VCSELs have the potential to be used as low cost uncooled optical transmitters at 10 Gbit/s. &COPY; 2005 American Institute of Physics. &COPY; 2005 American Institute of Physics.

Keywords
Dispersion (waves); Modulation; Resonance; Semiconducting indium gallium arsenide; Semiconductor quantum wells; Thermodynamic stability; Optical transmitters; Resonance frequency; Surface emitting lasers; Temperature tolerant modulation characteristics
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8623 (URN)10.1063/1.1935755 (DOI)000229544200009 ()2-s2.0-20844447649 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
10. 1.3 μm InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with mode filter for single mode operation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>1.3 μm InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with mode filter for single mode operation
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2004 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 85, no 21, p. 4851-4853Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the performance and analysis of 1.3 mum range InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with an integrated mode filter consisting of a patterned silicon layer on the top distributer Bragg reflector. In this way, 1 mW of single mode power is obtained from a device with a wavelength of 1265 nm and a threshold current of 2.6 mA at room temperature. An effective index model is used to extract the internal and external losses of the VCSEL structure and to predict the modal losses with and without mode filter, thereby providing a useful design tool for single mode VCSELs.

Keywords
Lasers; Modal analysis; Silicon; Thermal effects; Wave filters
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5287 (URN)10.1063/1.1823012 (DOI)000225300600008 ()2-s2.0-19144364842 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100817 QC 20110916Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
11. Temperature sensitivity of the threshold current of long-wavelength InGaAs/GaAs VCSELs with large gain-cavity detuning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature sensitivity of the threshold current of long-wavelength InGaAs/GaAs VCSELs with large gain-cavity detuning
Show others...
2004 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, ISSN 0018-9197, E-ISSN 1558-1713, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 453-462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Record-long emission wavelengths up to 1.3 mhaverecently been demonstrated from highly strained InGaAs–GaAsdouble-quantum-well (DQW) vertical-cavity surface-emittinglasers (VCSELs). The operation of InGaAs VCSELs at suchlong wavelengths has relied on a large detuning between thespectral positions of QW gain maximum and cavity resonance.This detuning also affects the high-temperature performance andtemperature sensitivity of such devices. In this paper, we presentand evaluate the threshold current–temperature characteristicof such lasers in relation to the gain-cavity detuning at roomtemperature (RT). For a near-zero gain peak offset from theemission wavelength at RT, the minimum threshold current isfound at the temperature where the gain peak wavelength and thecavity resonance are approximately aligned. This is well in linewith a common design rule for GaAs-based VCSELs. However,we show that this design rule fails in the case of larger gain-cavitymisalignment at RT. Instead, a minimum threshold current is obtainedconsiderably below the temperature of zero gain offset. Wepropose a conceptual model that relates the gain-cavity detuning atRT to the temperature sensitivity of the active region performance,which qualitatively describes the threshold current–temperaturecharacteristic typical of VCSELs. The results demonstrate theimportance of improving the temperature characteristic of theactive region in order to reduce the high temperature sensitivityof devices with large detuning.

Keywords
Gain offset, InGaAs–GaAs, long-wavelength, temperature sensitivity, vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5288 (URN)10.1109/JQE.2004.826421 (DOI)000221090900003 ()2-s2.0-2442459997 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101001Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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