A method of chemical aftertreatment for the reduction of free formaldehyde release of a durable flame retardant finished cotton fabric
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
This thesis aims at developing a method of chemical aftertreatment for reduction of free formaldehyde release of a tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) urea precondensate, ammonia cured durable flame retardant finished cotton fabric, by preventing the formation of free formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is toxic and carcinogenic. According to the worldwide standards, acceptable limit of free formaldehyde release, for the fabrics that have skin contact, is only 75 ppm (measured by water extraction method). In this research, a cotton fabric flame retardant finished in an industrial plant in Pakistan is used. Fabric is finished by the application of THPC urea precondensate and ammonia cured, oxidized and washed. After finishing, it is not aftertreated with sodium metabisulfite that is a commonly used aftertreatment method for the reduction of free formaldehyde release. Aftertreatment with sodium metabisulfite has various problems that include large number of hot washings and there is an increase in the formaldehyde release during fabric storage. If the fabric has 75 ppm of free formaldehyde, there is often an increase in free formaldehyde release during fabric storage. There is a very limited research on the aftertreatment methods and few reports of application of these aftertreatments on flame retardant fabrics have been published. In this research, two methods of aftertreatments are developed to reduce the free formaldehyde contents to 75 ppm or less. One is the aftertreatment with a combination of resorcinol 1% and diethylene glycol 4%. The other is the combination of resorcinol 1% and boric acid 6%. For both these aftertreatments, ammonium acetate 0.5% is used as a catalyst. Fabric is padded with the solution and then dried at 130̊ C for 8 minutes. After drying, fabric is rinsed with water at 40̊ C. The aftertreatment methods developed in this research have shown a long term effect in keeping the formaldehyde release below 75 ppm during fabric storage that is not available with other conventional aftertreatment methods. These aftertreatment methods have no adverse effect on the flame retardancy of the THPC ammonia cured finished fabric and the fabric is soft as compared to the original flame retardant finished fabric and to the fabric after treated with existing methods. These new developed methods have industrial application because there is no use of any solvent and there is no use of any special equipment for the aftertreatment.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aftertreatment, flame retardant, free formaldehyde, tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) urea pre-condensate, ammonia curing, sodium metabisulfite, resorcinol, diethylene glycol, boric acid, curing, oxidation
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-360OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-360DiVA: diva2:828076
Subject / course