Comparison of ASTM and BSI Standards for the calculation of fracture energy of adhesives: Design of a fixture and testing of DCB specimens
Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
Modern synthetic structural adhesives are finding a place in the drive to improve the fuel efficiencyof automobiles through weight reduction of the structure. One of the most important properties ofthe adhesives used in this type of joining is the fracture energy.A literature study is carried out to gain a broader understanding of the methods used for thedetermination of the fracture energy of adhesives. One of the most common experimental methodsrelies on the use of the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) test specimen. International standards for theDCB test are studied. Prediction of the fracture energy using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics andthe J-integral approach, a closed form solution and finite element methods are also seen. Differencesin these methods are attributed in part to the nonlinear behaviour of the adhesive being studied. It isdecided to use the results of a non-standard DCB test and the 40% error calculated by a theoreticalstandard method as a point of reference.A comprehensive comparison of the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) and BritishStandard Institution (BSI) standards for the determination of the fracture energy of adhesives isundertaken. Limitations and overlaps in the standards are identified. A DCB specimen isrecommended and an experimental procedure that satisfies elements one or both standards issuggested along with several small additions such as using a wire to assist in the application of theadhesive and the use of cameras to track the crack growth. In addition, a new fixture to allow testingof the recommended DCB specimen according to the standards is designed and manufactured.Materials for the preparation of tests specimens are ordered and, based on available laboratorytime, a single DCB test specimen is made for the purposes of testing a rubber-based automotivestructural adhesive. The specimen is tested using the recommended experimental procedure usingthe new fixture. The data produced during the test are collected and interpreted using themethodology proposed in the BSI standard for the calculation of the fracture energy of the selectedrubber-based adhesive. Several challenges found during this process are identified. The fractureenergy determined from the standard-based experiment ranges from 140 J/m2 to 1380 J/m2depending on the methodology used.The values of the fracture energy determined from the standard-based DCB experiment are thencompared to the fracture energy seen with the nonstandard-based experiment and to the standardbasednumerical test seen in the literature. It is shown that when simple beam theory method isused the difference in the results found in the standard-based experiment and nonstandard-basedexperiment can be confirmed to lie within the 40% error observed in the literature.Finally, the contributions of the project are summarized and recommendations for future work aremade. In particular, the lack of information given in the BSI standard when calculating the fractureenergy and the need for multiple test specimens are required by the standard, must be addressed inorder to support the obtained results and conclusions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 42 p.
DCB, standards, adhesives, fracture energy
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11221OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-11221DiVA: diva2:826036
Subject / course