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Entry, re-location and growth in the Swedish wholesale trade industry
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7193-2989
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wholesale trade has an intermediate position between manufacturing and retail in the distributional channel. In modern economies, consumers buy few, if any, products directly from manufacture or producer. Instead, it is a wholesaler, who is in direct contact with producers, buying goods in larger quantities and selling them in smaller quantities to retailers. Traditionally, the main function of a wholesaler has been to push goods along the distributional channel from producer to retailer, or other nonend user. However, the function of wholesalers usually goes beyond the process of the physical distribution of goods. Wholesalers also arrange storage, perform market analyses, promote trade or provide technical support to consumers (Riemers 1998). The existence of wholesalers (and other intermediaries) in the distributional channel is based on the effective and efficient performance of distribution services, that are needed by producers and other members of the supply chain. Producers usually do not enjoy the economies of scale that they have in production, when it comes to providing distributional services (Rosenbloom 2007) and this creates a space for wholesalers or other intermediaries. Even though recent developments in the distributional channel indicate that traditional wholesaling activities now also compete with other supply chain organizations, wholesaling still remains an important activity in many economies (Quinn and Sparks, 2007).

In 2010, the Swedish wholesale trade sector consisted of approximately 46.000 firms and generated an annual turnover of 1 300 billion SEK (Företagsstatistiken, Statistics Sweden). In terms of turnover, wholesaling accounts for 20% of the gross domestic product and is thereby the third largest industry. This is behind manufacturing and a composite group of firms in other sectors of the service industry but ahead of retailing. This indicates that the wholesale trade sector is an important part of the Swedish economy. The position of wholesaling is further reinforced when measuring productivity growth. Measured in terms of value added per employee, wholesaling experienced the largest productivity growth of all industries in the Swedish economy during the years 2000 through 2010.

The fact that wholesale trade is one of the important parts of a modern economy, and the positive development of the Swedish wholesale trade sector in recent decades, leads to several questions related to industry dynamics. The three topics that will be examined in this thesis are firm entry, firm relocation and firm growth. The main question to be answered by this thesis is what factors influence new firm formation, firm relocation and firm growth in the Swedish wholesale trade sector?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2013.
Series
Dalarna Licentiate Theses, 1
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Komplexa system - mikrodataanalys
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-17956ISBN: 978-91-89020-90-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-17956DiVA: diva2:822314
Available from: 2015-06-16 Created: 2015-06-16 Last updated: 2015-06-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Firm entry in the Swedish wholesale trade sector: dDoes market definition matter?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Firm entry in the Swedish wholesale trade sector: dDoes market definition matter?
2014 (English)In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 3, 703-717 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Firm entry into local markets has often been studied using administrative areas such as municipalities as the assumed relevant markets. However, administrative areas and the actual relevant markets based on local demand for firms’ products often do not coincide, which could bias the results of studies treating administrative areas as the relevant markets. Based on a behavioral assumption regarding how retailers act when purchasing products from wholesale trade firms, we create alternative markets using Voronoi diagrams. We then compare the empirical results of investigating the determinants of firm entry using municipalities as the relevant markets with the results obtained using Voronoi markets. The results indicate that, in both cases, the same variables are statistically significant in affecting entry, though the estimated effects differ in size.

Keyword
Firm entry, market delineation, entrepreneurship, regional economics, count data
National Category
Economic Geography
Research subject
Komplexa system - mikrodataanalys, General Microdata Analysis - retail
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-16082 (URN)10.1007/s00168-014-0639-8 (DOI)000345102500004 ()
Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector
2013 (English)In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 23, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyzes the determinants of firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector using a unique dataset covering over 10,000 Swedish wholesale trade firms during the years 2000 to 2004. The results indicate that there are negative correlations between profits, firm age, and firm size and the probability of firm migration. There is a positive correlation between firm growth in the previous year and firm migration, indicating that growth opportunities that cannot be realized at the present location are an important motivation for migration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keyword
Firm relocation, firm entry, firm demography, hierarchical random effects, logistic regression model
National Category
Social and Economic Geography Economics
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-16263 (URN)10.1080/09593969.2012.711258 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Retail and Wholesale Development Council
Available from: 2014-10-27 Created: 2014-10-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries
2013 (English)In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 33, no 12, 1193-1205 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To identify the determinants of firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries during 2000–2004, we analyse a sample of 400 limited liability companies using quantile regression techniques. Firm growth was mainly found to depend upon time-invariant firm-specific effects, supporting Penrose's [1959. The theory of the growth of the firm (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press] suggestion that internal resources such as firm culture, brand loyalty, entrepreneurial skills, and so on are important determinants of firm growth.

Keyword
firm dynamics, firm-level heterogeneity, high-growth firms, resource-based view, quantile regression
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Komplexa system - mikrodataanalys
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-13068 (URN)10.1080/02642069.2013.719883 (DOI)000323476100006 ()
Available from: 2013-09-26 Created: 2013-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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