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Förhållandet mellan COD och TOC i skogsindustriella avlopp
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
2015 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
The relationship between COD and TOC inforest industrial wastewater (English)
Abstract [sv]

Under tillverkningsprocessen i massa- och pappersindustrin bildas avloppsflöden i flera olika steg. Ett av de miljöbelastande utsläppen utgörs av organiskt material. Organiskt material kan mätas som biokemisk syreförbrukning (BOD), kemisk syreförbrukning (COD) eller som totalt organiskt kol (TOC). Analys av COD inkluderar ofta miljöfarliga ämnen (till exempel kvicksilver). Naturvårdsverket har under flera år aviserat att analysen kan komma att förbjudas och därmed blir analys av TOC allt mer vanligt. EU:s referensgränsvärden anges dock i COD och design av reningsanläggningar utgår oftast från COD. Detta leder till att båda parametrarna kommer att fortsätta att vara aktuella.

Med syftet att förbättra kunskapen om sambanden mellan COD och TOC för olika typer av avlopp inom massa- och pappersindustrin samlades jämförande serier över COD och TOC in från olika svenska bruk. Serierna analyserades med hjälp av regressions- och korrelationsanalys, för att sedan jämföras med medelvärdet av brukens COD/TOC faktorer (omvandlingsfaktorer). Studien innehöll även en del där information om analyser, förbehandlingar och övergången från COD till TOC samlades in genom intervjuer med personer ute på bruken. Som en avslutande del av projektet genomfördes ett laborativt arbete i mindre skala med främsta syfte att se hur konstant omvandlingsfaktorn var över tiden.

Resultaten visade att korrelationen mellan COD och TOC ofta var hög men att omvandlingsfaktorn var beroende av typ av tillverkningsprocess och rening. Värdet på omvandlingsfaktorn varierade därför mycket mellan olika bruk och delströmmar. Bruk med tillverkningsprocesser som använder få kemikalier hade en mer lika omvandlingsfaktor sinsemellan än bruk med kemikaliekrävande processer. Dessutom gav en högre reningsgrad en lägre omvandlingsfaktor. Omvandlingsfaktorn föreföll varken påverkas av halten suspenderat material eller vara årstidsberoende. Dessutomvar den också relativt konstant över tiden.

Abstract [en]

The industrial production of pulp and paper generates wastewater in several different steps in the production chain. Organic material from the wastewater will have an impacton the surrounding environment. Biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygendemand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) are three ways to measure organicmaterial. When analyzing COD, harmful substances such as mercury are often used. The Swedish Environmental Agency has for several years forecasted that this analysis might be banned, and therefore analysis of TOC has become more and more common in Sweden. However, COD is often used as a design parameter when designing new wastewater treatment plants and the European Union’s reference values are given as COD. Hence, both parameters will continue to be used and both need to be taken into consideration.

With the aim to improve the knowledge of the relationship between COD and TOC, data series with TOC and COD were collected. The data originated from several different Swedish pulp and paper mills, as well as from different types of waste water streams within each mill. The data series were analyzed using linear regression and correlation analysis, and then compared with the companies’ mean value of the ratio between COD and TOC (the conversion factor). Information about the shift from COD to TOC, and the analyzing methods and pretreatment methods was gathered by conducting interviews with employees at the different mills. The final part of the project was a laboratory study, with the main focus to examine if the conversion factor changed over time.

The results showed that the correlation between COD and TOC often was high, but that the conversion factor depended on type of manufacturing process and waste water treatment. Mills with a low use of chemicals had a more similar conversion factor than mills with a more chemical demanding process. Furthermore, a high degree of purification resulted in a lower conversion factor. The conversion factor did not seem to depend on neither the content of suspended solids nor the time of the year. Additionally, the conversion factor was relatively constant over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 117 p.
Series
UPTEC W, ISSN 1401-5765 ; 15016
Keyword [en]
Pulp and paper mills, wastewater, BOD, COD, TOC, mercury, linear regression, correlation, conversion factor.
Keyword [sv]
Massa- och pappersbruk, avloppsvatten, BOD, COD, TOC, kvicksilver, linjär regression, korrelation, omvandlingsfaktor.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-255258OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-255258DiVA: diva2:821743
External cooperation
ÅF
Educational program
Master Programme in Environmental and Water Engineering
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2015-06-23 Created: 2015-06-15 Last updated: 2015-06-23Bibliographically approved

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