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Electrodes and Electrokinetic Systems for Biotechnological Applications
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research in bioelectronics studies biological systems and materials in combination with electronic interfaces for the development of devices, e.g., for medical applications, drug and toxicity tests, and biotechnology in general. Neural implants and pacemakers are examples of products developed from this area of research. Conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) bridge biology and electronics with a combination of biocompatibility, flexibility, and capability to themselves undergo redox reactions. Electrokinetics, a related branch of science, describes the motion of fluids and particles caused by the application of an electric field, and includes various separation techniques such as gel electrophoresis. Applying an electric field in a sufficiently small diameter silica capillary can cause the liquid in the capillary to move. This phenomenon, referred to as electroosmosis, plays an important role in miniaturized microfluidic systems and can be used to drive flow in a so-called electroosmotic pump.

This thesis describes research at the interface between biology, chemistry and electronics. The first two papers probe the adsorption mechanism of poly-L-lysine, often used in biotechnological applications, onto hard materials such as metals (platinum) and metal oxides (indium tin oxide). By employing a gravimetric technique, quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) combined with electrochemistry, we studied the process by which poly-L-lysine is deposited onto two different conducting substrates under anodic conditions. We found that indium tin oxide is more suitable than platinum for anodic electrodeposition of PLL, however, the exact film deposition mechanism is not fully understood. Paper 3 demonstrates the applicability of using conducting polymers, (e.g., PEDOT) instead of platinum as electrode material in gel electrophoresis. The last paper describes the fabrication and characterization of an electroosmotic pump consisting of a potassium silicate stationary phase in a fused silica capillary and the integration of the pump into a system for use, e.g., as a bioreactor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. , 47 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1682
National Category
Chemical Sciences Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119364DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-119364ISBN: 978-91-7519-033-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-119364DiVA: diva2:821491
Public defence
2015-07-07, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-06-15 Created: 2015-06-15 Last updated: 2015-06-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study of polyelectrolyte film growth under anodic conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study of polyelectrolyte film growth under anodic conditions
2013 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 280, 783-790 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coating hard materials such as Pt with soft polymers like poly-l-lysine is a well-established technique for increasing electrode biocompatibility. We have combined quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation with electrochemistry (EQCM-D) to study the deposition of PLL onto Pt electrodes under anodic potentials. Our results confirm the change in film growth over time previously reported by others. However, the dissipation data suggest that, after the short initial phase of the process, the rigidity of the film increases with time, rather than decreasing, as previously proposed. In addition to these results, we discuss how gas evolution from water electrolysis and Pt etching in electrolytes containing Cl affect EQCM-D measurements, how to recognize these effects, and how to reduce them. Despite the challenges of using Pt as an anode in this system, we demonstrate that the various electrochemical processes can be understood and that PLL coatings can be successfully electrodeposited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Quartz crystal microgravimetry, QCM, Electrochemistry, Poly-L-lysine, Platinum electrode, Film growth
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95934 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.05.062 (DOI)000321045700117 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsradet)|325-2008-7537621-2007-3983|Bo Liedberg and the Molecular Physics Group at Linkoping University for access to equipment||Carl Trygger Foundation and The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research||

Available from: 2013-08-19 Created: 2013-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06
2. On the anodic deposition of poly-L-lysine on indium tin oxide
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the anodic deposition of poly-L-lysine on indium tin oxide
2016 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 196, 629-633 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We provide and discuss electrochemical quartz microbalance measurements confirming previouslyreported observations that poly-L-lysine films deposited from solution under anodic conditions grow at a constant deposition rate for extended periods of time. Compared to our previous results using Pt, we find that indium tin oxide (ITO) offers an effective surface for film growth where water oxidation is sufficiently suppressed to allow uniform films to be deposited. The fact that the previous results on ITO have been reproduced is positive for the study of polyelectrolyte film creation, and has implications for the use of these films to increase the biocompatibility of hard conducting materials used as electrodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2016
National Category
Chemical Sciences Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119362 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2016.02.177 (DOI)000372877400069 ()
Note

Vid tiden för disputation förelåg publikationen som manuskript

Funding agencies:  Swedish Research Council [2007-3983, 2008-7537]; Linkoping University

Available from: 2015-06-15 Created: 2015-06-15 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
3. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, 0089416- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2014
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105901 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0089416 (DOI)000331711900141 ()
Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Electroosmotic pumps with potassium silicate frits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electroosmotic pumps with potassium silicate frits
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electroosmotic pumps employing potassium silicate as a stationary phase show strong electroosmotic flow velocity and resistance to pressure-driven   flow. We characterize these pumps and demonstrate their simple integration into proof-of-concept PDMS lab-on-a-chip devices fabricated from 3D-printed templates.

National Category
Chemical Sciences Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119363 (URN)
Available from: 2015-06-15 Created: 2015-06-15 Last updated: 2015-06-15Bibliographically approved

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