Online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry for rapid environmental trace analysis of highly polar hydrophilic compounds – Application for the antiviral drug Zanamivir
2015 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 141, 164-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract Zanamivir (Za) is a highly polar and hydrophilic antiviral drug used for the treatment of influenza A viruses. Za has been detected in rivers of Japan and it's environmental occurrence has the risk of inducing antiviral resistant avian influenza viruses. In this study, a rapid automated online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography method using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC–MS/MS) for trace analysis of Za was developed. Furthermore, an internal standard (IS) calibration method capable of quantifying Za in Milli-Q, surface water, sewage effluent and sewage influent was evaluated. Optimum pre-extraction sample composition was found to be 95/5 v/v acetonitrile/water sample and 1% formic acid. The developed method showed acceptable linearities (r2≥0.994), filtration recovery (≥91%), and intra-day precisions (RSD≤16%), and acceptable and environmentally relevant LOQs (≤20 ng L−1). Storage tests showed no significant losses of Za during 20 days and +4/−20 °C (≤12%) with the exception of influent samples, which should be kept at −20 °C to avoid significant Za losses. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in a study on phototransformation of Za in unfiltered and filtered surface water during 28 days of artificial UV irradiation exposure. No significant (≤12%) phototransformation was found in surface water after 28 days suggesting a relatively high photostability of Za and that Za should be of environmental concern.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015. Vol. 141, 164-169 p.
Antivirals, Zanamivir, Online solid phase extraction, Liquid chromatography, ZIC-HILIC, Tandem mass spectrometry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-104589DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2015.03.066ISI: 000356987500026OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-104589DiVA: diva2:820200
FunderSwedish Research Council Formas, 211-2013-1320