Electric power quality in low voltage grid: Office buildings and rural substation
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
The modern society uses more and more electronic devices needed to being able to function together. This put higher demands on the electrical grid together with that the typical load have changed from the past. Therefore utility companies are obliged to keep the voltage within certain limits for this to function. What exact these limits have been have not always been clear since they have not been gathered in one single document.
This thesis is a cooperation with Kraftringen who also has been the initiator. Kraftringen would like to become more proactive in their work regarding electric power quality. For becoming more proactive continuously measurements have to be done but the locations have to be carefully selected in the beginning to get a wider perspective of the grid.
Energy markets inspectorate (EI) is supervisory of the electric power quality in Sweden and since 2011 they have published a code of statutes (EIFS 2011:2 later 2013:1) intended to summarize limits on voltage. Some of the electrical power quality aspects are not mentioned in EIFS 2013:1 and standards have to be used to find limited values. Flicker and interharmonics are not mentioned in EIFS 2013:1 and for values on flicker the standard SS-EN 50160 has to be used and for interharmonics the standard SS-EN 61000-2-2 state limit values. Besides all this there are standards with stricter limits than EIFS 2013:1 e.g. for total harmonic distortion on voltage were SS-EN 61000-2-2 suggest 6 % instead of 8 %.
Three different field studies have been conducted in order to get some perception of the present situation regarding electric power quality. Two measurements were conducted on a typical office building because they represents a large part of the typical load in Lund. The third measurement was conducted on a substation in a rural area to get a perception of the situation outside urban areas.
These measurements shown that the overall electric power quality was within given limits according to EIFS 2013:1 and different standards. However, conducted measurements shown some interesting results. Both the typical office buildings have a slightly capacitive power factor which results in that the voltage inside the building is going to be slightly higher than at the substation. Since the voltage level at the measured urban substation was above nominal voltage level with about 2-5 % this could be problematic. Another eventual problem with a load with a capacitive power factor is resonance with the inductive parts of the grid like transformers leading to magnified harmonic levels.
It is suggested that Kraftringen expand their number of permanent electric power quality measurement locations to get a better overview of the present situation. The best suited locations to start with are such that have received complaints earlier, preferably measured on the low voltage side of the transformer for also register the amount of zero sequence harmonics. Next step in the measurement expansion would be substations known to be under higher load than others or substations with a PEN-conductor in a smaller area than the phase conductors, supplying a typical office load with high amounts of third harmonics and unbalance. From this it would be appropriate to spread out the measurement locations geographically to better get to know the grids behaviour.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 64 p.
power quality, low voltage, office building, EIFS 2013:1, measurements, reactive power, capacitive power factor, substation
Energy Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-28441OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-28441DiVA: diva2:818167
Subject / course
Hylander, Jonny, Professor
Sidén, Göran, Associate Professor