External Representations in Service Design: A Distributed Cognition Perspective
2013 (English)In: EAD 2013: Crafting the Future, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2013, Vol. 10Conference paper (Refereed)
A defining characteristic of service design is the use of external representations which support the design process at various stages. Representations support designers in making intangible aspects of services accessible and shareable, making external representations especially important in service design. External representations are used both to represent current and future states, for the purposes of articulating insights, learning, communicating, collaborating, and maintaining empathy for customers. Many techniques are available that support designers in making representations of services. A comparison was made between the purposes for, and techniques used, in making external representations for service design with theories from cognitive science about benefits of using external representations to think. A pattern emerged during the analysis, indicating that the service design techniques could be divided into two groups, one of interactive techniques and one group of static techniques. Interactive techniques allow designers to interact with a dynamically changing representation, while static representations are unaffected by actions. The analysis also revealed that none of the included techniques explicitly support designers in making multiple simultaneous representations of services. The research contributes knowledge about how purposes for visualising and prototyping are related to general benefits of making external representations. It also provides insights about how to choose and use different service design techniques based on theories of distributed and situated cognition.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gothenburg, Sweden, 2013. Vol. 10
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118702ISBN: 978-91-979541-5-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-118702DiVA: diva2:816437
10th European Academy of Design Conference