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Strategy for tuning the average charge state of metal ions incident at the growing film during HIPIMS deposition
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. (Thin Film Physics)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4898-5115
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA. (Thin Film Physics)
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA; Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA. (Thin Film Physics)
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. (Thin Film Physics)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2837-3656
2015 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 116, 36-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy and time-dependent mass spectrometry is used to determine the relative number density of singly- and multiply-charged metal-ion fluxes incident at the substrate during high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) as a function of the average noble-gas ionization potential. Ti is selected as the sputtering target since the microstructure, phase composition, properties, and stress-state of Ti-based ceramic thin films grown by HIPIMS are known to be strongly dependent on the charge state of Tin+ (n = 1, 2, …) ions incident at the film growth surface. We find that the flux of Tin+ with n > 2 is insignificant; thus, we measure the Ti2+/Ti+ integrated flux ratio JTi2+ =JTi+ at the substrate position as a function of the choice of noble gase Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, as well as Ne/Ar, Kr/Ar, and Xe/Ar mixtures – supporting the plasma. We demonstrate that by changing noble-gas mixtures, JTi2+ varies by more than two orders of magnitude with only a small change in JTi+ . This allows the ratio JTi2+ =JTi+ to be continuously tuned from less than 0.01 with Xe, which has a low first-ionization potential IP1, to 0.62 with Ne which has a high IP1. The value for Xe, IP1Xe= 12.16 eV, is larger than the first ionization potential of Ti, IP1Ti= 6.85 eV, but less than the second Ti ionization potential, IP2Ti= 13.62 eV. For Ne, however, IP1Ne= 21.63 eV is greater than both IP1Ti and IP2Ti. Therefore, the high-energy tail of the plasma-electron energy distribution can be systematically adjusted, allowing JTi2+/JTi+ to be controllably varied over a very wide range.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015. Vol. 116, 36-41 p.
Keyword [en]
HIPIMS; HPPMS; ionized PVD; ion charge state
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118602DOI: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2015.02.027ISI: 000354582900007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-118602DiVA: diva2:815866
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 227754VINNOVA, 2005-02666Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2011.0143
Available from: 2015-06-02 Created: 2015-06-02 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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Greczynski, GrzegorzPetrov, IvanGreene, Joseph EHultman, Lars
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