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Online coaching as a Relationship of Inquiry: Exploring one-to-one online education
KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8200-6021
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In educational development, much focus is put on the use of computers and other digital tools to enhance teaching and learning. One of the most used digital communication forms is one-to-one communication using text, images, and video. One-to-one communication for educational purposes has, however, so far received only modest attention in research.

The purpose of this thesis is to explore inquiry-based one-to-one online education. An additional purpose is to explore opportunities and limitations with the Community of Inquiry framework, one of the most used models for analysis of online learning, when analyzing one-to-one online education. A particular interest is put on the role of emotions in the analyses. The empirical case used in the thesis is the Math Coach program who employs one-to-one education for k-12 students in mathematics via chat and a shared digital whiteboard.

The thesis consists of an introduction and four papers. First, in Paper I online coaching is defined, explained, and discussed through a review of previous research and a study of the establishment and operation of the Math Coach program. Secondly, the Community of Inquiry framework is adapted for use in one-to-one settings forming the Relationship of Inquiry framework. Paper II initiates the adaption using a survey study, Paper III evaluates the role of emotions in the framework, and Paper IV consolidates the Relationship of Inquiry framework with a comprehensive description of its components and a transcript coding procedure.

The findings indicate that inquiry-based one-to-one online education can be explored utilizing Online coaching as a Relationship of Inquiry. Online coaching is theoretically grounded in collaborative constructivism, critical thinking, and proximal development. It is defined as an inquiry-based learning activity where a person gets support on a specific subject matter from a more knowledgeable person using the Internet. The Relationship of Inquiry is a conceptual connection that is built between two persons that engage in a critical discourse in order resolve an educational issue. Central for the framework is the elements of cognitive presence, teaching presence, social presence, and emotional presence. Emotional presence is especially examined and confirmed as a critical interdependent element of the framework.

Abstract [sv]

En stor del av det utvecklingsarbete som idag bedrivs inom utbildningsväsendet handlar om hur datorer och annan digital teknik kan användas för att förbättra undervisning och lärande. Digital kommunikation mellan två individer – en-till-en-kommunikation – i form av text, bilder och video har fått stort genomslag i samhället, men det finns begränsat med forskning om dess användning och användbarhet i utbildningssammanhang.

Det primära syftet med denna avhandling är att utforska nätbaserad en-till-en-utbildning. Ett ytterligare syfte är att undersöka möjligheter och begränsningar med användandet av ramverket "Community of Inquiry" vid analys av nätbaserad utbildning. I avhandlingen studeras särskilt den emotionella dimensionen av ramverket. Som studieobjekt används Mattecoach på nätet, en verksamhet där grundskole- och gymnasieelever får stöd – coachas – i sina matematikstudier genom att chatta med lärarstudenter via textmeddelanden och en delad digital skrivtavla.

Avhandlingen är skriven på engelska och består av en inledning och fyra vetenskapliga artiklar. I artikel I definieras, förklaras och diskuteras läraktiviteten nätcoachning. I artikel II introduceras ramverket "Relationship of Inquiry". Detta bygger på ''Community of Inquiry'', som är ett väletablerat hjälpmedel för att analysera kommunikation inom större grupper, men har anpassats för en-till-en-kommunikation. I artikel III utvecklas ramverket vidare genom att speciellt studera den emotionella aspekten av lärande. I artikel IV bekräftas ramverket genom en fullständig beskrivning av dess ingående delar och en transkriptionsanalys.

Studien indikerar att nätbaserad en-till-en-utbildning kan utforskas utifrån läraktiviteten nätcoachning och ramverket ''Relationship of Inquiry'' (Online coaching as a Relationship of Inquiry). Nätcoachning definieras som en undersökande läraktivitet där en person via Internet får stöd i sin kunskapsutveckling från en annan individ som är mer kunnig inom området. Dess teoretiska grund bygger på kollaborativ konstruktivism, kritiskt tänkande och proximal utveckling. I avhandlingen studeras den relation som bildas mellan coach och elev som genom en kritisk och reflekterande dialog löser elevens matematikproblem. Ramverket är uppbyggt kring fyra delar: det kognitiva elementet, lärarelementet, det sociala elementet samt det emotionella elementet. Det emotionella elementet har särskilt studerats och visade sig vara ett viktigt element.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , vi, 55 p.
Series
TRITA-ECE, 2015:04
Keyword [en]
online learning, online coaching, one-to-one online education, Community of Inquiry, Relationship of Inquiry
National Category
Learning
Research subject
Education and Communication in the Technological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166652ISBN: 978-91-7595-526-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-166652DiVA: diva2:811750
Public defence
2015-06-09, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150513

Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2015-06-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Student-student online coaching: Conceptualizing an emerging learning activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Student-student online coaching: Conceptualizing an emerging learning activity
2013 (English)In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 16, no 1, 66-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to describe student-student online coaching, defined as "an online service where a student gets support on a specific subject matter from a more experienced student". Student-student online coaching emphasizes learning a subject matter by giving a student the opportunity to get coached by a coach, i.e. a more experienced student. Online coaching is encouraged by an organization, but the control of learning is primarily in the hands of the student. An example of online coaching is described, i.e. math coaching by instant messaging. A key challenge for coaches is to interpret the students' competence level, despite that they often do not know the students beforehand, in order to coach on a level that is within their zone of proximal development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Online coaching, Online tutoring, Math coaching, Online learning
National Category
Learning Media and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-108322 (URN)10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.02.003 (DOI)000312575100009 ()2-s2.0-84869487554 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130121

Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Student-Student Online Coaching as a Relationship of Inquiry: An Exploratory Study from the Coach Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Student-Student Online Coaching as a Relationship of Inquiry: An Exploratory Study from the Coach Perspective
2012 (English)In: Journal of asynchronous learning networks, ISSN 1939-5256, E-ISSN 1092-8235, Vol. 16, no 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are comparatively few studies on one-to-one tutoring in online settings, even though it has been found to be an effective model. This paper explores student-student online coaching from the coach perspective. The empirical case is the project Math Coach, where K-12 students are coached by teacher students using instant messaging. This research is an adaptation of the community of inquiry model to an online coaching setting, which we refer to as a relationship of inquiry. The adapted model was used to gain a better understanding of the practice of online coaching by exploring the extent to which cognitive, social, and teaching presence exist in this case of online coaching. A relationship of inquiry survey was distributed to and answered by all active coaches (n=41). The adapted cognitive, social and teaching presence measures achieved an acceptable level of reliability. Differences between three presences, and their respective sub-categories, demonstrate a unique pattern of interaction between coaches and coachees in the online coaching environment. Findings suggest the online inquiry model fits as well for a relationship of inquiry as it does for a community of inquiry. The model provides valuable information for better understanding of online coaching.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Sloan Consortium, 2012
Keyword
online coaching, online learning, relationship of inquiry, community of inquiry, student-student online coaching
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104457 (URN)2-s2.0-84872288584 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20121112

Available from: 2012-11-12 Created: 2012-11-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Emotional presence in a relationship of inquiry: The case of one-to-one online math coaching
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional presence in a relationship of inquiry: The case of one-to-one online math coaching
2016 (English)In: Online Learning, ISSN 1092-8235, Vol. 20, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emotions have been confirmed to be a critical component of the process of learning. In the online Community of Inquiry theoretical framework, and the recently suggested online Relationship of Inquiry framework, emotions are considered a subsection of social presence. In this study, the concept of emotional presence is examined. This examination occurs within the Relationship of Inquiry framework, developed to analyze one-to-one online coaching. A survey of online coaches and a transcript coding procedure from the online coaching service Math Coach provide the data for the study. The results indicate that a Relationship of Inquiry framework consisting of cognitive, social, teaching, and emotional presence enhances the exploration of one-to-one online coaching settings. The interpretation of these results identifies emotional presence as an essential and distinct part of one-to-one online math coaching.

Keyword
Online coaching, Relationship of Inquiry, Community of Inquiry, Emotion, Emotional presence
National Category
Learning
Research subject
Education and Communication in the Technological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166648 (URN)000374407500004 ()2-s2.0-84962073300 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160418

Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
4. Revising the Community of Inquiry framework for the analysis of one-to-one online learning relationships
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revising the Community of Inquiry framework for the analysis of one-to-one online learning relationships
2016 (English)In: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 17, no 3, 36-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In online learning research, the theoretical Community of Inquiry framework has been used extensively to analyze processes of inquiry among learners and instructors within a community. This paper examines a special case of community of inquiry consisting of only one learner and one instructor. Together they engage in an online coaching discourse to form a relationship of inquiry. Within these relationships, coachees pass through processes of practical inquiry process while a coach supports the process. In this study, a framework and coding scheme were developed for use in a transcript coding procedure including 3,109 messages from an online coaching case in math for k‑12 students. It is found that the elements of cognitive, teaching, and social presence, as well as the newly proposed emotional presence, which outlines a community of inquiry, comprise an effective structure for the analysis of one-to-one online coaching environments. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that a Relationship of Inquiry framework has the potential to support development of one-to-one online learning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Athabasca University Press, 2016
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166650 (URN)10.19173/irrodl.v17i3.2068 (DOI)000380035900004 ()2-s2.0-84969246396 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160517

Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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Output format
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