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Cats as a biomarker for exposure to POPs in home environments: – with focus on brominated chemicals and associations to feline hyperthyroidism
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. (Environmental chemistry)
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, body burden of brominated chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and brominated phenolic substances are explored. The external exposure of cats to these compounds from house dust and their food was also investigated. The analytical methodology used for serum extractions was validated for analysis of OH-PBDEs in cat serum.

Cats are highly exposed to dust and thereby also to chemicals accumulated in dust, due to their grooming behavior. This makes pet cats, a suitable biomarker for exposure to chemicals in house dust in home environments. Thereby, cats’ exposure to dust is somewhat similar to toddlers, due their hand-to-mouth behavior. Thus, cats’ internal exposure may be used to access that of toddlers. The PBDE pattern in Swedish pet cats show exposure to Penta-, Octa- and DecaBDE and their profile matches that of dust from their homes, suggesting dust to be an important exposure source. Serum concentrations of BDE-47 in the cats were also shown to correlate with house dust from their living rooms.

Feline hyperthyroidism (FH) is a common endocrine disease in elderly cats worldwide, still the actual cause(s) has not been established even though environmental pollutants such as PBDEs have been suggested. Difference in contamination load between cats with normal thyroid status and cats diagnosed with FH was performed and higher serum concentrations for some PBDEs (BDE-99, 153, -183) were found in the hyperthyroid cats.

Further, the presence of the longtime discontinued flame retardant, decabromobiphenyl (BB-209) in all sampled cats indicates that it is still being circulated. A significant correlation between serum concentrations of BB-209 and matched cat food samples was found.

Very few OH-PBDEs were indeed shown in cat serum and the dominating compound, 6-OH-BDE47, is believed to be of natural origin rather than being a metabolite of BDE-47. A significant correlation between serum concentration of 6-OH-BDE47 and cat food was found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University , 2015. , 74 p.
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-116904ISBN: 978-91-7649-190-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-116904DiVA: diva2:809510
Public defence
2015-06-11, Magnéli Hall, Arrhenius Laboratory, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-05-20 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-06-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Decabromobiphenyl, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, and Brominated Phenolic Compounds in Serum of Cats Diagnosed With the Endocrine Disease Feline Hyperthyroidism
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decabromobiphenyl, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, and Brominated Phenolic Compounds in Serum of Cats Diagnosed With the Endocrine Disease Feline Hyperthyroidism
2012 (English)In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 63, no 1, 161-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The incidence of cats being diagnosed with feline hyperthyroidism (FH) has increased greatly since it was first described in 1979. The cause of FH has not been established. Hypothetically, there is a link between increasing FH and exposure to brominated flame retardants. Much greater polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) concentrations have been reported in cat serum compared with human serum, likely due to cat licking behaviour. This study aimed to extend the present identification of brominated compounds in cat serum, with a focus on hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE, to improve the understanding of feline metabolism of PBDEs. A pooled serum sample from 30 Swedish pet cats with FH was analysed, and brominated species were identified. The results showed exposure to the discontinued flame retardant decabromobiphenyl (BB-209) and technical penta- and octa-BDEs. Altogether 12 PBDE congeners were identified along with 2'-MeO-BDE68. Furthermore, 2,4-dibromophenol, 2,4,6-, 2,4,5- and 2,3,4-tribromophenol plus 2'-OH-BDE68, 6-OH-BDE47, 5-OH-BDE47, 4'-OH-BDE49 were identified. 2,4,6-tribromophenol and 6-OH-BDE47 were the most prominent species in cat serum. Considering that these are natural products, it can be concluded that metabolism of PBDEs to OH-PBDEs is not a major route of PBDE elimination in cats. It is notable that BB-209, 6-OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol all suggested that endocrine-disrupting chemicals were present in high concentrations in cat serum.

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-80042 (URN)10.1007/s00244-012-9750-y (DOI)000305210400017 ()
Note

AuthorCount:4;

Available from: 2012-09-12 Created: 2012-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Higher PBDE Serum Concentrations May Be Associated with Feline Hyperthyroidism in Swedish Cats
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Higher PBDE Serum Concentrations May Be Associated with Feline Hyperthyroidism in Swedish Cats
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 8, 5107-5114 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Serum from 82 individual cats was analyzed for decabromobiphenyl (BB-209), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), and 2,4,6-TBP in order to study differences in body burden between healthy and sick cats diagnosed with Feline Hyperthyroidism (FH). Within the study group, 60 of these cats had a euthyroid (n = 23) or hyperthyroid (n = 37) status, all of which were used in the comparison. This study shows that hyperthyroid compared to euthyroid cats have higher serum concentrations for some of the investigated PBDEs (BDE-99, BDE-153, and BDE-183) and CB-153 on a fat weight basis. Further, it is intriguing, and beyond explanation, why the flame retardant BB-209 (discontinued in 2000) is present in all of the cat serum samples in concentrations similar to BDE-209. Median BDE-47/-99 ratios are 0.47 and 0.32 for healthy and euthyroid cats, respectively, which differs significantly from Swedes, where the ratio is 3.5. Another important finding is the occurrence of very low levels or the absence of hydroxylated PBDE metabolites in the cats. In addition, the major OH-PBDE, 6-OH-BDE47, is likely of natural origin, probably ingested via cat food. The statistics indicate an association between elevated PBDE concentrations in the cats and FH.

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-116900 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b00234 (DOI)000353610300039 ()
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
3. Cats’ internal exposure to selected BFRs and organochlorines correlated to house dust and cat food
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cats’ internal exposure to selected BFRs and organochlorines correlated to house dust and cat food
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-116901 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved
4. Recovery discrepancies of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum versus herring and long-tailed duck plasma
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recovery discrepancies of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum versus herring and long-tailed duck plasma
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, 97-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified as metabolites of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or as natural products. The OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols have come into focus over the last decade due to their abundance in biota and their potential adverse health effects. The present recovery study aims to validate a commonly used method (published by Hovander et al. 2000) for OH-PBDE analysis in human plasma. Further, the authors intended to determine the method's applicability to serum/plasma matrices from other species than humans. The investigated matrices were human plasma, cat serum, herring- and long-tailed duck plasma. The recovery study included nine OH-PBDEs, four polybromophenols and three methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Five replicates of each matrix were spiked with these compounds at two dose levels; a low dose (0.5 ng) and a high dose (5 ng) and were cleaned up according to the Hovander method. The recovery of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum were high and reproducible at both dose levels whereas the recovery for herring and long-tailed duck plasma were low and insufficient with great variability amongst OH-PBDE congeners at both dose levels. Our data show that the method can be fully applied to matrices like human plasma and cat serum but not for herring and long-tailed duck plasma without further method development. Hence care needs to be taken when applying the method onto other blood matrices without validation since the present study have demonstrated that the recoveries may differ amongst OH-PBDE congeners and specie.

Keyword
OH-PBDEs, Polybromophenols, Plasma, Serum, Recovery study
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98262 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.020 (DOI)000327685300014 ()
Note

AuthorCount:5;

Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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