Modeling prediction and pattern recognition in the early visual and olfactory systems
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Our senses are our mind's window to the outside world and determine how we perceive our environment.Sensory systems are complex multi-level systems that have to solve a multitude of tasks that allow us to understand our surroundings.However, questions on various levels and scales remain to be answered ranging from low-level neural responses to behavioral functions on the highest level.Modeling can connect different scales and contribute towards tackling these questions by giving insights into perceptual processes and interactions between processing stages.In this thesis, numerical simulations of spiking neural networks are used to deal with two essential functions that sensory systems have to solve: pattern recognition and prediction.The focus of this thesis lies on the question as to how neural network connectivity can be used in order to achieve these crucial functions.The guiding ideas of the models presented here are grounded in the probabilistic interpretation of neural signals, Hebbian learning principles and connectionist ideas.The main results are divided into four parts.The first part deals with the problem of pattern recognition in a multi-layer network inspired by the early mammalian olfactory system with biophysically detailed neural components.Learning based on Hebbian-Bayesian principles is used to organize the connectivity between and within areas and is demonstrated in behaviorally relevant tasks.Besides recognition of artificial odor patterns, phenomena like concentration invariance, noise robustness, pattern completion and pattern rivalry are investigated.It is demonstrated that learned recurrent cortical connections play a crucial role in achieving pattern recognition and completion.The second part is concerned with the prediction of moving stimuli in the visual system.The problem of motion-extrapolation is studied using different recurrent connectivity patterns.The main result shows that connectivity patterns taking the tuning properties of cells into account can be advantageous for solving the motion-extrapolation problem.The third part focuses on the predictive or anticipatory response to an approaching stimulus.Inspired by experimental observations, particle filtering and spiking neural network frameworks are used to address the question as to how stimulus information is transported within a motion sensitive network.In particular, the question if speed information is required to build up a trajectory dependent anticipatory response is studied by comparing different network connectivities.Our results suggest that in order to achieve a dependency of the anticipatory response to the trajectory length, a connectivity that uses both position and speed information seems necessary.The fourth part combines the self-organization ideas from the first part with motion perception as studied in the second and third parts.There, the learning principles used in the olfactory system model are applied to the problem of motion anticipation in visual perception.Similarly to the third part, different connectivities are studied with respect to their contribution to anticipate an approaching stimulus.The contribution of this thesis lies in the development and simulation of large-scale computational models of spiking neural networks solving prediction and pattern recognition tasks in biophysically plausible frameworks.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xiv, 185 p.
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2015:10
spiking neural networks, pattern recognition, self-organization, prediction, anticipation, visual system, olfactory system, modeling
Bioinformatics (Computational Biology)
Research subject Computer Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166127ISBN: 978-91-7595-532-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-166127DiVA: diva2:809353
2015-05-27, F3, Lindstedtsv. 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Hamker, Fred, Professor
Anders, Lansner, Affiliated Professor
FunderEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
QC 201505042015-05-042015-05-022015-05-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers