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A finite element study of shell and solid element performance in crash-box simulations
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
2015 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
En jämförande finita elementstudie av skal- och solidelement i simulering av krockboxar (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

This thesis comprehends a series of nonlinear numerical studies with the finite element software's LS-Dyna and Impetus AFEA. The main focus lies on a comparative crash analysis of an aluminium beam profile which the company Sapa technology has used during their crash analysis.

The aluminium profile has the characteristic of having different thickness over span ratios within the profile. This characteristic provided the opportunity to conduct a performance investigation of shell and solid elements with finite element analysis.

Numerical comparisons were made between shell and solid elements where measurable parameters such as internal energy, simulation times, buckling patterns and material failures were compared to physical tests conducted prior to this thesis by Sapa technology.

The performance investigation of shell and solid elements was initiated by creating models of the aluminium profile for general visualization and to facilitate the meshing of surfaces. The meshing procedure was considered to be an important factor of the analysis. The mesh quality and element orientations were carefully monitored in order to achieve acceptable results when the models were compared to physical tests.

Preliminary simulations were further conducted in order to obtain a clear understanding of software parameters when performing crash simulations in LS-Dyna and Impetus AFEA. The investigated parameters were element formulations and material models. A general parameter understanding facilitated in the selection of parameters for actual simulations, where material failure and damage models were used.

In conclusion, LS-Dyna was observed to provide a bigger internal energy absorption during the crushing of the beam with longer simulation times for solid elements when compared to shell elements. Impetus AFEA did on the other hand provide results close to physical test data with acceptable simulation times when compared to physical tests.

The result difference obtained from the FE-software's in relation to physical crash experiments were considered to be varied but did indicate that shell elements were efficient enough for the specific profile during simulations with LS-Dyna. Impetus AFEA proved that the same time to be numerically efficient for energy approximations with solid elements refined with the third polynomial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 30 p.
Keyword [en]
Crash analysis, solid elements, shell elements, LS-Dyna, Impetus AFEA, Hypermesh
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-7575Local ID: EXC580OAI: diva2:808638
Subject / course
Mechanical engineering
Educational program
Available from: 2015-05-12 Created: 2015-04-29 Last updated: 2015-05-25Bibliographically approved

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