Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Body composition of parents and their infants: methodological, anthropometric, metabolic and genetic studies
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Body composition in infancy may be of importance for later health. In particular, infant body composition may be relevant regarding obesity risk in childhood. Recent advances in body composition methodology using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) have provided possibilities to accurately measure body composition of infants in a quick and non-invasive manner. The aims of this thesis were to study associations of parental body composition using ADP, glucose homeostasis during pregnancy and infant genetics with infant body composition also using ADP. When using ADP in adults, a correction for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) is needed and TGV can be predicted using equations developed in nonpregnant adults. Thus another aim was to study the validity of using such equations during pregnancy.

Parent couples were invited to this study at a routine visit to a maternity clinic in Linköping between September 2008 and October 2010. When the mother was in gestational week 32, parental body composition using ADP and maternal glucose homeostasis variables were assessed. Size and body composition of healthy, singleton and full term (≥ 37 gestational weeks) infants were measured at 1 and 12 weeks of age and a total of 211 infants  were included in the studies. Weight and length at 1 year of age were reported by parents. Saliva samples were collected from the infants to obtain DNA for genotyping of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene.

Body composition results calculated using measured and predicted TGV were compared in 27 women. Results showed that predicted TGV yields a very marginal overestimation (0.5 %) of fat mass (FM). Further, each kg increase in maternal and paternal fat-free mass (FFM) was associated with 15.6 g (P=0.001) and 9.1 g (P=0.007), respectively, more FFM in their 1-week old infants. FM of fathers was not related to infant FM. However, maternal FM was positively associated with FM of daughters (5.8 g/kg, P=0.007), but not of sons (P=0.79) at 1 week of age. Similarly, each standard deviation increase in maternal HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance) was related to 52.7 more g of FM (P<0.001) in 1-weekold daughters, but no such relationship was found for sons (P=0.79). The number of risk alleles at the FTO locus rs9939609 was not associated with infant body mass index (BMI) or infant FM at 1 or 12 weeks of age. However, the number of risk alleles was positively associated (P≤0.033) with infant length at 1 and 12 weeks of age, and the results suggested that this association was stronger in boys than in girls.

The results presented in this thesis show that: i) The use of predicted TGV when applying ADP in gestational week 32 overestimated % FM only slightly. ii) Associations between parental and infant body composition are present early in life. Thus, parental FFM was positively related to FFM in 1-week-old infants. Furthermore, maternal FM and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were positively related to FM of 1-week-old daughters, but no such relationships were observed for sons. iii) The FTO genotype is not associated with infant body fatness at 1 or 12 weeks of age. However, the results suggested that the number of FTO risk alleles is positively associated with infant length, especially in boys.

In conclusion, parental and genetic factors were associated with infant size and body composition and these relationships may be of importance for future body composition and health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. , 67 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1456
National Category
Clinical Medicine Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117435DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-117435ISBN: 978-91-7519-094-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117435DiVA: diva2:808154
Public defence
2015-06-02, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 15402Swedish Research Council Formas, 222-2006-614, 222-2008-1332Magnus Bergvall FoundationSwedish Society of MedicineÖstergötland County Council
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Assessment and prediction of thoracic gas volume in pregnant women: an evaluation in relation to body composition assessment using air displacement plethysmography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment and prediction of thoracic gas volume in pregnant women: an evaluation in relation to body composition assessment using air displacement plethysmography
2013 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, no 1, 111-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Assessment of body fat (BF) in pregnant women is important when investigating the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring health. Convenient and accurate body composition methods applicable during pregnancy are therefore needed. Air displacement plethysmography, as applied in Bod Pod, represents such a method since it can assess body volume (BV) which, in combination with body weight, can be used to calculate body density and body composition. However, BV must be corrected for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) of the subject. In non-pregnant women, TGV may be predicted using equations, based on height and age. It is unknown, however, whether these equations are valid during pregnancy. Thus, we measured the TGV of women in gestational week 32 (n 27) by means of plethysmography and predicted their TGV using equations established for non-pregnant women. Body weight and BV of the women was measured using Bod Pod. Predicted TGV was significantly (P = 0.033) higher than measured TGV by 6% on average. Calculations in hypothetical women showed that this overestimation tended to be more pronounced in women with small TGV than in women with large TGV. The overestimation of TGV resulted in a small but significant (P = 0.043) overestimation of BF, equivalent to only 0.5% BF, on average. A Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement were narrow (from -1.9 to 2.9% BF). Thus, although predicted TGV was biased and too high, the effect on BF was marginal and probably unimportant in many situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2013
Keyword
Air displacement plethysmography, Body composition, Pregnancy, Thoracic gas volume
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87956 (URN)10.1017/S0007114512000906 (DOI)000312998200014 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|15402|FORMAS||Magnus Bergvall Foundation||Thuring Foundation||Swedish Society of Medicine||Medical Faculty, Linkoping University||County Council of Ostergotland||

Available from: 2013-01-28 Created: 2013-01-28 Last updated: 2015-04-27
2. Parental fat-free mass is related to the fat-free mass of infants and maternal fat mass is related to the fat mass of infant girls
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parental fat-free mass is related to the fat-free mass of infants and maternal fat mass is related to the fat mass of infant girls
2015 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 5, 491-497 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: Existing studies suggest that weight and body composition of parents influence the size and body composition of their offspring, but are often inconclusive and conducted by means of inappropriate body composition methodology. Our aim was to study infant size and body composition variables in relation to body composition variables of their mothers and fathers in a well-nourished population using an accurate methodology.

Methods: Between 2008 and 2011, we used air displacement plethysmography to measure the body composition of 209 parent–infant units. Parents were measured when women were in gestational week 32. Their healthy, singleton, full-term infants were measured at 1 week.

Results: Infant fat-free mass in grams was positively related (p ≤ 0.007) to the fat-free mass in kilograms of the mothers (15.6 g/kg) and the fathers (9.1 g/kg). Furthermore, the fat mass of the daughters, but not of the sons, was positively related to the fat mass of the mothers (5.8 g/kg, p = 0.007).

Conclusion: This study found associations between the fat-free mass of parents and infants and an association between the fat mass of mothers and their infant girls. These findings may help to understand early life factors behind overweight and obesity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Keyword
Body composition, Father, Infant, Mother, Sex difference
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Clinical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117430 (URN)10.1111/apa.12939 (DOI)000353643400023 ()25645821 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2016-01-07Bibliographically approved
3. Glucose, insulin, and the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 in the circulation of pregnant women in relation to their own body composition and to that of their infants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Glucose, insulin, and the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 in the circulation of pregnant women in relation to their own body composition and to that of their infants
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aim: Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are incompletely known. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e. glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), haemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1), in their circulation and related these variables to the body composition of their infants.

Methods: Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32.

Results: Insulin/HOMA-IR were positively related to body mass index, fat mass index and fat mass (r2=0.32-0.36, P<0.001) of the women. Their glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR values were positively (P≤0.009) associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (P=0.001) associated, with infant fat mass. Insulin and HOMA-IR were positively associated with fat mass of daughters (P<0.001), but not of sons (P≥0.65) (Sex-interaction: P≤ 0.042).

Conclusion: Glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggested that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by insulin resistance.

Keyword
Body composition, infant, insulin resistance, mother, sex difference
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Clinical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117431 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
4. Variation in the fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) genotype is not associated with body fatness in infants, but possibly with their length
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation in the fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) genotype is not associated with body fatness in infants, but possibly with their length
2014 (English)In: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, Vol. 9, no 5, E112-E115 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundData relating variation at the fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) locus (rs9939609) to fat mass in infancy are inconclusive. ObjectiveTo study relationships between FTO genotype and infant size (at 1 and 12 weeks and at 1 year of age) and body composition (at 1 and 12 weeks). MethodsBody composition was assessed using air displacement plethysmography in 207 infants. FTO was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. ResultsThe number of risk alleles was related to length at 1 and 12 weeks (P=0.007-0.033) but not to fat mass. The relationship to length was stronger in boys than in girls. ConclusionsOur results suggest that the FTO genotype is not related during infancy to fat mass but is related to length in boys but not in girls.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2014
Keyword
Body composition; fat mass; FTO; infant
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112052 (URN)10.1111/ijpo.231 (DOI)000342991900009 ()24846219 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [15402]; County Council of Ostergotland

Available from: 2014-11-17 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2015-04-27

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1387 kB)285 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1387 kBChecksum SHA-512
fbe33730a0064739d2a18327fe0889644580c8618efcd4b347facfa6009dba178d8a9951e99ad717034ad1d4a7bff73c6a937e8e78a3e8c9c587df57690ef838
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
omslag(2760 kB)16 downloads
File information
File name COVER01.pdfFile size 2760 kBChecksum SHA-512
c7dc2b1447a61adcc3c9a469655510859a5671adcd60f506038166bcb294fbfa4c9df39c08d7af155cef0aeb4a29dd431c3935ebe2ce556586f76b6d8b6acff6
Type coverMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Henriksson, Pontus
By organisation
Division of Clinical SciencesFaculty of Health Sciences
Clinical MedicinePublic Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 285 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 1369 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link